May 11, 2021

Enrique Ocaña: GStreamer WebKit debugging by instrumenting source code (3/3)

Igalia WebKit

This is the last post on the instrumenting source code series. I hope you to find the tricks below as useful as the previous ones.

In this post I show some more useful debugging tricks. Don’t forget to have a look at the other posts of the series:

Finding memory leaks in a RefCounted subclass

The source code shown below must be placed in the .h where the class to be debugged is defined. It’s written in a way that doesn’t need to rebuild RefCounted.h, so it saves a lot of build time. It logs all refs, unrefs and adoptPtrs, so that any anomaly in the refcounting can be traced and investigated later. To use it, just make your class inherit from LoggedRefCounted instead of RefCounted.

Example output:

void WTF::adopted(WTF::LoggedRefCounted<T>*) [with T = WebCore::MediaSourceClientGStreamerMSE]: this=0x673c07a4, refCount 1
void WTF::adopted(WTF::LoggedRefCounted<T>*) [with T = WebCore::MediaSourceClientGStreamerMSE]: this=0x673c07a4, refCount 1
^^^ Two adopts, this is not good.
void WTF::LoggedRefCounted<T>::ref() [with T = WebCore::MediaSourceClientGStreamerMSE]: this=0x673c07a4, refCount 1 --> ...
void WTF::LoggedRefCounted<T>::ref() [with T = WebCore::MediaSourceClientGStreamerMSE]: this=0x673c07a4, refCount ... --> 2
void WTF::LoggedRefCounted<T>::deref() [with T = WebCore::MediaSourceClientGStreamerMSE]: this=0x673c07a4, refCount 2 --> ...
void WTF::LoggedRefCounted<T>::deref() [with T = WebCore::MediaSourceClientGStreamerMSE]: this=0x673c07a4, refCount ... --> 1
void WTF::adopted(WTF::LoggedRefCounted<T>*) [with T = WebCore::MediaSourceClientGStreamerMSE]: this=0x673c07a4, refCount 1
void WTF::LoggedRefCounted<T>::deref() [with T = WebCore::MediaSourceClientGStreamerMSE]: this=0x673c07a4, refCount 1 --> ...
void WTF::LoggedRefCounted<T>::deref() [with T = WebCore::MediaSourceClientGStreamerMSE]: this=0x673c07a4, refCount 1 --> ...
^^^ Two recursive derefs, not good either.
#include "Logging.h"

namespace WTF {

template<typename T> class LoggedRefCounted : public WTF::RefCounted<T> {
    void ref() {
        printf("%s: this=%p, refCount %d --> ...\n", __PRETTY_FUNCTION__, this, WTF::RefCounted<T>::refCount()); fflush(stdout);
        printf("%s: this=%p, refCount ... --> %d\n", __PRETTY_FUNCTION__, this, WTF::RefCounted<T>::refCount()); fflush(stdout);

    void deref() {
        printf("%s: this=%p, refCount %d --> ...\n", __PRETTY_FUNCTION__, this, WTF::RefCounted<T>::refCount()); fflush(stdout);
        printf("%s: this=%p, refCount ... --> %d\n", __PRETTY_FUNCTION__, this, WTF::RefCounted<T>::refCount()); fflush(stdout);

    LoggedRefCounted() { }
    ~LoggedRefCounted() { }

template<typename T> inline void adopted(WTF::LoggedRefCounted<T>* object)
    printf("%s: this=%p, refCount %d\n", __PRETTY_FUNCTION__, object, (object)?object->refCount():0); fflush(stdout);

} // Namespace WTF

Pause WebProcess on launch

WebProcessMainGtk and WebProcessMainWPE will sleep for 30 seconds if a special environment variable is defined:


It only works #if ENABLE(DEVELOPER_MODE), so you might want to remove those ifdefs if you’re building in Release mode.

Log tracers

In big pipelines (e.g. playbin) it can be very hard to find what element is replying to a query or handling an event. Even using gdb can be extremely tedious due to the very high level of recursion. My coworker Alicia commented that using log tracers is more helpful in this case.

GST_TRACERS=log enables additional GST_TRACE() calls all accross GStreamer. The following example logs entries and exits into the query function.


The names of the logging categories are somewhat inconsistent:

  • log (the log tracer itself)
  • query
  • bin

The log tracer code is in subprojects/gstreamer/plugins/tracers/gstlog.c.

By eocanha at May 11, 2021 06:00 AM

May 07, 2021

Release Notes for Safari Technology Preview 124

Surfin’ Safari

Safari Technology Preview Release 124 is now available for download for macOS Big Sur and macOS Catalina. If you already have Safari Technology Preview installed, you can update in the Software Update pane of System Preferences on macOS.

This release covers WebKit revisions 274641-275811.

Web Inspector

  • Added autocomplete for experimental CSS Color values: hwb, lch, lab, color-mix, color-contrast (r275310)
  • Changed grid overlay track size labels to show implicit auto value and no computed size (r275559)
  • Fixed grid layout labels that were getting drawn outside the viewport (r275128)
  • Fixed CSS Grid overlay track sizes when inline styles are applied to the element (r275293)
  • Fixed a bug with more than two timeline recordings not showing a timescale (r275337)
  • Fixed grid overlay areas appearing offset from their actual areas when the grid container has a border set (r275529)
  • Fixed grid overlay to honor writing modes and RTL layout direction. (r275519)
  • Fixed grid overlay line numbers showing implicit tracks with negative line numbers (r275558)
  • Improved grid overlay label appearance (r275560)
  • Removed the duplicate Box Model section from Layout panel in Elements Tab (r275545)


  • Accounted for cover and contain when interpolating background-size (r275202)
  • Accounted for hanging and each-line when blending text-interpolation (r275224)
  • Added support for animating the vertical-align CSS property (r275160)
  • Animated pseudo element style resolved against wrong parent style (r275277)
  • Fixed interpolation of the caret-color CSS property (r275092)
  • Computed style for a border-radius corner should never be 0px when the provided width isn’t 0px (r275273)
  • Enabled hanging and each-line keywords for the text-indent CSS property (r275199)
  • Fixed align-content issues in Flexbox (r275416)
  • Fixed max-height percentages getting wrongly resolved for replaced grid items in nested percentage flexboxes (r275758)
  • Fixed min and max widths of grid affected by ancestor (r275754)
  • Fixed initial horizontal scrollbar position when vertical scrollbar is on the left (r275811)
  • Fixed max-content on tables with percentage cell widths (r275462)
  • Improved interpolation of the shape-outside CSS property (r275015)
  • Prevented negative heights in CSS Grid (r274933)
  • Supported animation of the tab-size CSS property (r274939)
  • Updated CSS Color 5 color-mix() implementation to match the latest draft spec (r274947)


  • Fixed Intl.Locale to not assume is8Bit (r274784)
  • Fixed Object.freeze(this) at the global scope to not lose a reference to a WatchpointSet (r274882)
  • Fixed RegExp interpreter not to match against non-BMP characters with multiple dots (r274806, r274945)
  • Fixed incorrect Array toString() if join() is not callable (r275544)


  • Enabled the ability to prevent scrolling in Element.focus() (r274812)
  • Implemented AbortSignal.abort() (r274773)
  • Propagated user gestures through requestAnimationFrame just like setTimeout (r275187)
  • ServiceWorker should save module scripts (r275751)


  • Fixed aspect-ratio to recompute on hover (r275377)
  • Implemented text rendering on OffscreenCanvas in a Worker (r275420)

Wheel Events

  • Allowed wheel events to trigger high frequency DisplayLinks (r275440)

Web Driver

  • Fixed SendKeys on <input type="file"> returning element not found in some cases (r275050)


  • Enabled Metal ANGLE backend for WebGL (r274927)


  • Implemented RTCDataChannel transfer (r274758)


  • Fixed WebCrypto to support AES-GCM 0 byte encryption (r275535)


  • Fixed scrolling momentum with scroll-snap-type: x mandatory when the scroller scrolls vertically (r274853)
  • Fixed scroll-snap-stop: always not respected during momentum scrolling (r274726)

Web Extensions

  • Allow wss:// URL in content_security_policy to allow extension pages to use WebSocket connections

May 07, 2021 08:30 PM

May 04, 2021

Manuel Rego: :focus-visible in WebKit - April 2021

Igalia WebKit

A new report after a new month is gone, you can see the previous ones at:

Again this is a status report about the work Igalia is doing on the implementation of :focus-visible in WebKit, which is part of the Open Prioriziatation campaign. Thanks everyone supporting this!

There has been some nice progress in April, though some things are still under ongoing discussion.

Script focus and :focus-visible

Finally we decided to reflect the reality in the script focus tests that I created, and merge them on WPT. The ones where the implementations Chromium and Firefox don’t match the agreed expectations (the ones when you click a non-focusable element, and that click moves focus elsewhere), where marked as .tentative.

So we opened a separated issue to explain the situation and gather more feedback about what to do here.

Once we had the tests I implemented the same behavior as other browsers, the current one reflected on the tests, in WebKit. The patch got reviewed and merged, so script focus and :focus-visible work the same in all browsers right now.

:focus-visible and Shadow DOM

The test that checks that :focus-visible doesn’t match on ShadowRoot was also merged in WPT. That’s the current behavior on WebKit implementation too. More about this in January’s post.

Implementation details

There was a crash in WebKit due to my initial implementation of script focus, that problem has been already fixed. Also an extra bug was found and fixed too.

On the review of those patches, some new discussion started about different things related to :focus-visible feature, like why a keyboard input triggers :focus-visible matching. The discussion with Apple engineers is ongoing on the bug and let’s see how it ends.

Some numbers

Let’s take a look to the numbers again:

  • 26 PRs merged in WPT (5 in April).
  • 27 patches landed in WebKit (10 in April).
  • 9 patches landed in Chromium (2 in April).
  • 2 PRs merged in CSS spcs.
  • 1 PR merged in HTML spec.

Next steps

Implementation is mostly over, now the goal is to close the discussions with the different parties and check the possibilities of shipping this in WebKit.

Thanks everyone that has provided input in the different discussions and jumped on the patches review. Your feedback has been really useful to keep moving this forward.

Stay tuned!

May 04, 2021 10:00 PM

Enrique Ocaña: GStreamer WebKit debugging by instrumenting source code (2/3)

Igalia WebKit

In this post I show some more useful debugging tricks. Check also the other posts of the series:

Print current thread id

The thread id is generated by Linux and can take values higher than 1-9, just like PIDs. This thread number is useful to know which function calls are issued by the same thread, avoiding confusion between threads.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/syscall.h>

printf("%s [%d]\n", __PRETTY_FUNCTION__, syscall(SYS_gettid));

Debug GStreamer thread locks

We redefine the GST_OBJECT_LOCK/UNLOCK/TRYLOCK macros to print the calls, compare locks against unlocks, and see who’s not releasing its lock:

#include "wtf/Threading.h"
#define GST_OBJECT_LOCK(obj) do { \
  printf("### [LOCK] %s [%p]\n", __PRETTY_FUNCTION__, &Thread::current()); fflush(stdout); \
  g_mutex_lock(GST_OBJECT_GET_LOCK(obj)); \
} while (0)
#define GST_OBJECT_UNLOCK(obj) do { \
  printf("### [UNLOCK] %s [%p]\n", __PRETTY_FUNCTION__, &Thread::current()); fflush(stdout); \
  g_mutex_unlock(GST_OBJECT_GET_LOCK(obj)); \
} while (0)
#define GST_OBJECT_TRYLOCK(obj) ({ \
  gboolean result = g_mutex_trylock(GST_OBJECT_GET_LOCK(obj)); \
  if (result) { \
   printf("### [LOCK] %s [%p]\n", __PRETTY_FUNCTION__, &Thread::current()); fflush(stdout); \
  } \
  result; \

Warning: The statement expression that allows the TRYLOCK macro to return a value will only work on GCC.

There’s a way to know which thread has taken a lock in glib/GStreamer using gdb. First locate the stalled thread:

(gdb) thread 
(gdb) bt
#2  0x74f07416 in pthread_mutex_lock ()
#3  0x7488aec6 in gst_pad_query ()
#4  0x6debebf2 in autoplug_query_allocation ()

(gdb) frame 3
#3  0x7488aec6 in gst_pad_query (pad=pad@entry=0x54a9b8, ...)
4058        GST_PAD_STREAM_LOCK (pad);

Now get the process id (PID) and use the pthread_mutex_t structure to print the Linux thread id that has acquired the lock:

(gdb) call getpid()
$30 = 6321
(gdb) p ((pthread_mutex_t*)pad.stream_rec_lock.p)->__data.__owner
$31 = 6368
(gdb) thread find 6321.6368
Thread 21 has target id 'Thread 6321.6368'

Trace function calls (poor developer version)

If you’re using C++, you can define a tracer class. This is for webkit, but you get the idea:

#define MYTRACER() MyTracer(__PRETTY_FUNCTION__);
class MyTracer {
    MyTracer(const gchar* functionName)
      : m_functionName(functionName) {
      printf("### %s : begin %d\n", m_functionName.utf8().data(), currentThread()); fflush(stdout);
    virtual ~MyTracer() {
        printf("### %s : end %d\n", m_functionName.utf8().data(), currentThread()); fflush(stdout);
    String m_functionName;

And use it like this in all the functions you want to trace:

void somefunction() {
  // Some other code...

The constructor will log when the execution flow enters into the function and the destructor will log when the flow exits.

Setting breakpoints from C

In the C code, just call raise(SIGINT) (simulate CTRL+C, normally the program would finish).

And then, in a previously attached gdb, after breaking and having debugging all you needed, just continue the execution by ignoring the signal or just plainly continuing:

(gdb) signal 0
(gdb) continue

There’s a way to do the same but attaching gdb after the raise. Use raise(SIGSTOP) instead (simulate CTRL+Z). Then attach gdb, locate the thread calling raise and switch to it:

(gdb) thread apply all bt
[now search for "raise" in the terminal log]
Thread 36 (Thread 1977.2033): #1 0x74f5b3f2 in raise () from /home/enrique/buildroot/output2/staging/lib/
(gdb) thread 36

Now, from a terminal, send a continuation signal: kill -SIGCONT 1977. Finally instruct gdb to single-step only the current thread (IMPORTANT!) and run some steps until all the raises have been processed:

(gdb) set scheduler-locking on
(gdb) next    // Repeat several times...

Know the name of a GStreamer function stored in a pointer at runtime

Just use this macro:


Detecting memory leaks in WebKit

RefCountedLeakCounter is a tool class that can help to debug reference leaks by printing this kind of messages when WebKit exits:

  LEAK: 2 XMLHttpRequest
  LEAK: 25 CachedResource
  LEAK: 3820 WebCoreNode

To use it you have to modify the particular class you want to debug:

  • Include wtf/RefCountedLeakCounter.h
  • DEFINE_DEBUG_ONLY_GLOBAL(WTF::RefCountedLeakCounter, myClassCounter, ("MyClass"));
  • In the constructor: myClassCounter.increment()
  • In the destructor: myClassCounter.decrement()

By eocanha at May 04, 2021 06:00 AM

April 29, 2021

New WebKit Features in Safari 14.1

Surfin’ Safari

Safari 14.1 for macOS Big Sur, iPadOS 14.5, and iOS 14.5 brings new WebKit features, APIs, performance improvements, and improved compatibility for web developers. Take a look.

Flexbox Gap Support

Safari 14.1 now supports the gap property inside Flexbox containers, along with row-gap and column-gap. Gaps in Flexbox make it possible for web developers to create space between Flex items without resorting to annoying margin hacks.

The gap property, of course, has worked inside Grid containers since Safari 12. Because gap is supported for Grid, testing support for the property in a Flexbox formatting context wasn’t possible by using feature queries (@supports). By adding support for gap in Flexbox, Safari brings the web closer to widespread compatibility.

For more information, see the “flex containers” definition in the “Row and Column Gutters” section of the CSS Box Alignment specification.

Date & Time Inputs on macOS

In HTML, the date, time, datetime-local attributes for the input element prompt the browser to create date and/or time controls — an interface that’s designed to let the user easily enter a time or a date, usually with a calendar. Safari has supported these input fields on iOS since 2012. Now with Safari 14.1, these fields are supported on macOS as well.

Date picker interface for date input field with time and date-time inputs

CSS Individual Transform Properties

With WebKit support of Individual Transform Properties, web developers can write CSS rules and keyframe animations in a more straightforward way.

For years, the transform property has provided the ability to scale, rotate, and translate. You could access this power through code like this:

transform: translate(100px, 100px) rotate(180deg) scale(2);

Now, if you wish, you can instead write:

translate: 100px 100px;
rotate: 180deg;
scale: 2;

This is a syntactical and conceptual difference — the result is the same. You might find it easier to understand and remember.

This syntax also avoids unintentional overrides of other transform-related properties and eliminates pre-computing intermediate values when using keyframe animations.

You can learn more by reading “CSS Individual Transform Properties” on the WebKit blog.

Paint Timing API

A valuable metric to improving the performance of web content is the time it takes for the user-agent to show something to the user. WebKit added the Paint Timing API to its suite of performance APIs to provide this measurement. Developers can measure:

  • first-paint for the time it takes to show pixels of anything that is not the user-agent’s default background
  • first-contentful-paint to get the time for the user to see content such as text or an image

To learn more about the API, see the Paint Timing specification.

Web Speech API

The Web Speech API in WebKit has supported speech synthesis for some time. Now, Safari supports speech recognition powered by the same speech engine as Siri. That means web developers can enjoy the benefits of high-quality transcription for over 50 languages and dialects. Note that users will need Siri enabled in System Preferences on macOS or Settings in iOS or iPadOS for the API to be available to be used.

For more information on speech recognition and speech synthesis on the web, see the Web Speech API specification.

Web Audio API

As a continuing area of focus, Safari compatibility improvements are ongoing. Updates to the Web Audio API bring it to standards compliance. It is now available unprefixed with support for advanced audio processing via Audio Worklets.

You can learn more about web audio from the Web Audio API specification.

Interoperability Improvements

There are several new interoperability improvements in WebKit:

  • Web Animations now work on 122 more properties
  • Animation of pseudo-elements beyond ::before and ::after.
  • Improved mouse support on iPadOS and in Catalyst apps, including wheel events and hover/pointer media queries

Updated wheel Event handling improves performance and interoperability with other browsers. Wheel handlers registered on root objects (window/document/body) with default arguments will be treated as passive. Pages that want to prevent the default handling of Wheel Events which result from gestures like trackpad swipes on macOS, must now call preventDefault() on the first Wheel Event in the sequence.

MediaRecorder API

WebKit added support for MediaStream Recording, also known as the MediaRecorder API. It allows websites to record audio and video, then encode them using the platform’s available set of default encodings.

Learn more in the MediaStream Recording specification.

WebM Support

WebKit added improved support for WebM media. With Safari 14, WebKit added support for WebM via MSE on iPadOS and macOS. Now, WebKit on macOS supports WebM files containing VP8 or VP9 video tracks and Vorbis audio tracks. Developers can now offer WebM content to users, though users will enjoy the best quality and power efficiency with h.264 or HEVC.

See the WebM Project for details.

JavaScript Improvements

Class Fields

Updates to the JavaScript engine in WebKit adds new support for private class fields to enforce restrictions for static and instance fields in ES6 classes. Developers that used conventions before can switch to built-in support to manage access to properties and methods. Public static class fields are also available, adding to the previously supported public instance class fields.

To learn more, see the public and private instance field proposal.

Internationalization API

New Internationalization API features include Intl.DisplayNames, Intl.ListFormat, and Intl.Segmenter. Intl.DateTimeFormat was updated to support dateStyle and timeStyle options. The Intl.NumberFormat method was updated with support to display measurement units, notation formats, sign display, and narrow symbol currency formatting.

For more information on these formatting methods, see the proposals for Intl.DisplayNames, Intl.ListFormat, Intl.Segmenter, Intl.DateTimeFormat, and Intl.NumberFormat.

WeakRef and FinalizationRegistry

WeakRef supports holding an object that can be garbage collected when there are no strong references to it. The FinalizationRegistry object compliments WeakRef to manage cleanup tasks when a target object is garbage collected.

Read more details in the WeakRefs proposal.


WebAssembly support, introduced with Safari 11, is a low-level binary format used as a compilation target for existing languages.


WebAssembly support for the atomic instructions in the Threading specification, are enabled in Safari 14.1. Note, that until Safari supports the COEP/COOP headers, shared memory is not enabled as it could expose users to cross-origin Specter data leaks.

For more information, see the WebAssembly Specification for WASM Threads.

WebAssembly Sign Extension Operator

New sign-extension operator support preserves the number’s sign while extending the number of bits of an integer.

Learn more in the Sign-extension Ops proposal.

JavaScript BigInt Integration

Support for a new JavaScript API allows bidirectional conversion of a JavaScript BigInt value to a WASM 64-bit integer.

See the WebAssembly Specification for toJSValue.

Private Click Measurement

This release features Private Click Measurement – a proposed web standard that enables advertisers to measure the effectiveness of click-through ad campaigns in a privacy-preserving way. This new technology is part of a larger effort to remove cross-site tracking from the web and provide privacy-preserving alternatives where needed.

See “Introducing Private Click Measurement, PCM” on the WebKit blog.

Storage Access API Updates

WebKit has improved the Storage Access API to allow per-page storage access and allow nested iframes to request storage access. These interoperability changes are from the ongoing standardization of the Storage Access API together with Mozilla, Microsoft, and the web community. This API has shipped in Safari since 2018 and is part of a larger effort to remove cross-site tracking from the web and provide privacy-preserving alternatives where needed.

For details, see “Updates to the Storage Access API” on the WebKit blog.

Web Inspector Updates

The updates to Web Inspector available in these releases include:

  • A new three-panel layout in the Elements Tab brings the Styles sidebar into an independent panel alongside the existing details sidebar.
  • The new Font panel gives content authors visibility into details of the fonts used on the page.
  • Breakpoints in the Sources Tab can now be configured with conditions or actions, reducing the need for stray console.log statements left in production code.

To learn more about Web Inspector features, see the Web Inspector Reference documentation.


These improvements are available to users running Safari on iPadOS 14.5, iOS 14.5, or Safari 14.1 on macOS Big Sur (11.3), macOS Catalina, or macOS Mojave. These features were also available to web developers in Safari Technology Preview releases. Changes in this release of Safari were included in the following Safari Technology Preview releases: 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122.

Download the latest Safari Technology Preview release to stay at the forefront of future web platform and Web Inspector features. You can also use the WebKit Feature Status page to watch for changes to web platform features you’re interested in.


If you run into any issues, we welcome your bug reports for Safari or WebKit bugs for web content issues. Send us a tweet @webkit to share your thoughts on this release.

Note that an earlier version of this blog post described updates to Web Share API that are not enabled by default. Additional clarification of WebM support and WebAssembly Threading has also been added.

April 29, 2021 04:00 PM

April 27, 2021

Enrique Ocaña: GStreamer WebKit debugging by instrumenting source code (1/3)

Igalia WebKit

This is the continuation of the GStreamer WebKit debugging tricks post series. In the next three posts, I’ll focus on what we can get by doing some little changes to the source code for debugging purposes (known as “instrumenting”), but before, you might want to check the previous posts of the series:

Know all the env vars read by a program by using LD_PRELOAD to intercept libc calls

// File getenv.c
// To compile: gcc -shared -Wall -fPIC -o getenv.c -ldl
// To use: export LD_PRELOAD="./", then run any program you want
// See

#define _GNU_SOURCE

#include <stdio.h>
#include <dlfcn.h>

// This function will take the place of the original getenv() in libc
char *getenv(const char *name) {
 printf("Calling getenv(\"%s\")\n", name);

 char *(*original_getenv)(const char*);
 original_getenv = dlsym(RTLD_NEXT, "getenv");

 return (*original_getenv)(name);

See the breakpoints with command example to know how to get the same using gdb. Check also Zan’s libpine for more features.

Track lifetime of GObjects by LD_PRELOADing gobject-list

The gobject-list project, written by Thibault Saunier, is a simple LD_PRELOAD library for tracking the lifetime of GObjects. When loaded into an application, it prints a list of living GObjects on exiting the application (unless the application crashes), and also prints reference count data when it changes. SIGUSR1 or SIGUSR2 can be sent to the application to trigger printing of more information.

Overriding the behaviour of a debugging macro

The usual debugging macros aren’t printing messages? Redefine them to make what you want:

#define LOG_MEDIA_MESSAGE(...) do { \
  printf("LOG %s: ", __PRETTY_FUNCTION__); \
  printf(__VA_ARGS__); \
  printf("\n"); \
  fflush(stdout); \
} while(0)

This can be done to enable asserts on demand in WebKit too:

#undef ASSERT
#define ASSERT(assertion) \
  (!(assertion) ? \
      (WTFReportAssertionFailure(__FILE__, __LINE__, WTF_PRETTY_FUNCTION, #assertion), \
       CRASH()) : \

#define ASSERT_NOT_REACHED() do { \
  WTFReportAssertionFailure(__FILE__, __LINE__, WTF_PRETTY_FUNCTION, 0); \
  CRASH(); \
} while (0)

It may be interesting to enable WebKit LOG() and GStreamer GST_DEBUG() macros only on selected files:

#define LOG(channel, msg, ...) do { \
  printf("%s: ", #channel); \
  printf(msg, ## __VA_ARGS__); \
  printf("\n"); \
  fflush(stdout); \
} while (false)

#define _GST_DEBUG(msg, ...) do { \
  printf("### %s: ", __PRETTY_FUNCTION__); \
  printf(msg, ## __VA_ARGS__); \
  printf("\n"); \
  fflush(stdout); \
} while (false)

Note all the preprocessor trickery used here:

  • First arguments (channel, msg) are captured intependently
  • The remaining args are captured in __VA_ARGS__
  • do while(false) is a trick to avoid {braces} and make the code block work when used in if/then/else one-liners
  • #channel expands LOG(MyChannel,....) as printf("%s: ", "MyChannel"). It’s called “stringification”.
  • ## __VA_ARGS__ expands the variable argument list as a comma-separated list of items, but if the list is empty, it eats the comma after “msg”, preventing syntax errors

Print the compile-time type of an expression

Use typeid(<expression>).name(). Filter the ouput through c++filt -t:

std::vector<char *> v; 
printf("Type: %s\n", typeid(v.begin()).name());

Abusing the compiler to know all the places where a function is called

If you want to know all the places from where the GstClockTime toGstClockTime(float time) function is called, you can convert it to a template function and use static_assert on a wrong datatype like this (in the .h):

template <typename T = float> GstClockTime toGstClockTime(float time) { 
    "Don't call toGstClockTime(float)!");
  return 0;

Note that T=float is different to integer (is_integral). It has nothing to do with the float time parameter declaration.

You will get compile-time errors like this on every place the function is used:

WebKitMediaSourceGStreamer.cpp:474:87:   required from here
GStreamerUtilities.h:84:43: error: static assertion failed: Don't call toGstClockTime(float)!

Use pragma message to print values at compile time

Sometimes is useful to know if a particular define is enabled:

#include <limits.h>

#define _STR(x) #x
#define STR(x) _STR(x)

#pragma message "Int max is " STR(INT_MAX)

#pragma message "Compilation goes by here"
#pragma message "Compilation goes by there"


The code above would generate this output:

test.c:6:9: note: #pragma message: Int max is 0x7fffffff
 #pragma message "Int max is " STR(INT_MAX)
test.c:11:9: note: #pragma message: Compilation goes by there
 #pragma message "Compilation goes by there"

By eocanha at April 27, 2021 06:00 AM

April 21, 2021

Víctor Jáquez: Review of Igalia Multimedia activities (2020/H2)

Igalia WebKit

As the first quarter of 2021 has aready come to a close, we reckon it’s time to recap our achievements from the second half of 2020, and update you on the improvements we have been making to the multimedia experience on the Web and Linux in general.

Our previous reports:


We have closed ~100 issues related with multimedia in WebKitGTK/WPE, such as fixed seek issues while playback, plugged memory leaks, gardening tests, improved Flatpak-based developing work-flow, enabled new codecs, etc.. Overall, we improved a bit the multimedia’s user experience on these Webkit engine ports.

To highlight a couple tasks, we did some maintenance work on WebAudio backends, and we upstreamed an internal audio mixer, keeping only one connection to the audio server, such as PulseAudio, instead of multiple connections, one for every audio resource. The mixer combines all streams into a single audio server connection.

Adaptive media streaming for the Web (MSE)

We have been working on a new MSE backend for a while, but along the way many related bugs have appeared and they were squashed. Also many code cleanups has been carried out. Though it has been like yak shaving, we are confident that we will reach the end of this long and winding road soonish.

DRM media playback for the Web (EME)

Regarding digital protected media playback, we worked to upstream OpenCDM, support with Widevine, through RDK’s Thunder framework, while continued with the usual maintenance of the others key systems, such as Clear Key, Widevine and PlayReady.

For more details we published a blog post: Serious Encrypted Media Extensions on GStreamer based WebKit ports.

Realtime communications for the Web (WebRTC)

Just as EME, WebRTC is not currently enabled by default in browsers such as Epiphany because license problems, but they are available for custom adopters, and we are maintaining it. For example, we collaborated to upgrade LibWebRTC to M87 and fixed the expected regressions and gardening.

Along the way we experimented a bit with the new GPUProcess for capture devices, but we decided to stop the experimentation while waiting for a broader adoption of the process, for example in graphics rendering, in WPE/WebKitGTK.

GPUProcess work will be retaken at some point, because it’s not, currently, a hard requirement, since we already have moved capture devices handling from the UIProcess to the WebProcess, isolating all GStreamer operations in the latter.


GStreamer is one of our core multimedia technologies, and we contribute on it on a daily basis. We pushed ~400 commits, with similar number of code reviews, along the second half of 2020. Among of those contributions let us highlight the following list:

  • A lot of bug fixing aiming for release 1.18.
  • Reworked and enhanced decodebin3, the GstTranscoder
    and encodebin.
  • Merged av1parse in video parsers plugin.
  • Merged qroverlay plugin.
  • Iterated on the mono-repo
    proposal, which requires consensus and coordination among the whole community.
  • gstwpe element has been greatly improved from new user requests.
  • Contributed on the new libgstcodecs library, which enables stateless video decoders through different platforms (for example, v4l2, d3d11, va, etc.).
  • Developed a new plugin for VA-API using this library, exposing H.264, H.265, VP9, VP8, MPEG2 decoders and a full featured postprocessor, with better performance, according our measurements, than GStreamer-VAAPI.


Despite 2020 was not a year for conferences, many of them went virtual. We attended one, the Mile high video conference, and participated in the Slack workspace.

Thank you for reading this report and stay tuned with our work.

By vjaquez at April 21, 2021 04:49 AM

April 20, 2021

Enrique Ocaña: GStreamer WebKit debugging tricks using GDB (2/2)

Igalia WebKit

This post is a continuation of a series of blog posts about the most interesting debugging tricks I’ve found while working on GStreamer WebKit on embedded devices. These are the other posts of the series published so far:

Print corrupt stacktraces

In some circumstances you may get stacktraces that eventually stop because of missing symbols or corruption (?? entries).

#3  0x01b8733c in ?? ()
Backtrace stopped: previous frame identical to this frame (corrupt stack?)

However, you can print the stack in a useful way that gives you leads about what was next in the stack:

  • For i386: x/256wa $esp
  • For x86_64: x/256ga $rsp
  • For ARM 32 bit: x/256wa $sp

You may want to enable asm-demangle: set print asm-demangle

Example output, the 3 last lines give interesting info:

0x7ef85550:     0x1b87400       0x2     0x0     0x1b87400
0x7ef85560:     0x0     0x1b87140       0x1b87140       0x759e88a4
0x7ef85570:     0x1b87330       0x759c71a9 <gst_base_sink_change_state+956>     0x140c  0x1b87330
0x7ef85580:     0x759e88a4      0x7ef855b4      0x0     0x7ef855b4
0x7ef85830:     0x76dbd6c4 <WebCore::AppendPipeline::resetPipeline()::__PRETTY_FUNCTION__>        0x4     0x3     0x1bfeb50
0x7ef85840:     0x0     0x76d59268      0x75135374      0x75135374
0x7ef85850:     0x76dbd6c4 <WebCore::AppendPipeline::resetPipeline()::__PRETTY_FUNCTION__>        0x1b7e300       0x1d651d0       0x75151b74

More info: 1

Sometimes the symbol names aren’t printed in the stack memdump. You can do this trick to iterate the stack and print the symbols found there (take with a grain of salt!):

(gdb) set $i = 0
(gdb) p/a *((void**)($sp + 4*$i++))

[Press ENTER multiple times to repeat the command]

$46 = 0xb6f9fb17 <_dl_lookup_symbol_x+250>
$58 = 0xb40a9001 <g_log_writer_standard_streams+128>
$142 = 0xb40a877b <g_return_if_fail_warning+22>
$154 = 0xb65a93d5 <WebCore::MediaPlayerPrivateGStreamer::changePipelineState(GstState)+180>
$164 = 0xb65ab4e5 <WebCore::MediaPlayerPrivateGStreamer::playbackPosition() const+420>

Many times it’s just a matter of gdb not having loaded the unstripped version of the library. /proc/<PID>/smaps and info proc mappings can help to locate the library providing the missing symbol. Then we can load it by hand.

For instance, for this backtrace:

#0  0x740ad3fc in syscall () from /home/enrique/buildroot-wpe/output/staging/lib/ 
#1  0x74375c44 in g_cond_wait () from /home/enrique/buildroot-wpe/output/staging/usr/lib/ 
#2  0x6cfd0d60 in ?? ()

In a shell, we examine smaps and find out that the unknown piece of code comes from libgstomx:

$ cat /proc/715/smaps
6cfc1000-6cff8000 r-xp 00000000 b3:02 785380     /usr/lib/gstreamer-1.0/

Now we load the unstripped .so in gdb and we’re able to see the new symbol afterwards:

(gdb) add-symbol-file /home/enrique/buildroot-wpe/output/build/gst-omx-custom/omx/.libs/ 0x6cfc1000
(gdb) bt
#0  0x740ad3fc in syscall () from /home/enrique/buildroot-wpe/output/staging/lib/
#1  0x74375c44 in g_cond_wait () from /home/enrique/buildroot-wpe/output/staging/usr/lib/
#2  0x6cfd0d60 in gst_omx_video_dec_loop (self=0x6e0c8130) at gstomxvideodec.c:1311
#3  0x6e0c8130 in ?? ()

Useful script to prepare the add-symbol-file:

cat /proc/715/smaps | grep '[.]so' | sed -e 's/-[0-9a-f]*//' | { while read ADDR _ _ _ _ LIB; do echo "add-symbol-file $LIB 0x$ADDR"; done; }

More info: 1

The “figuring out corrupt ARM stacktraces” post has some additional info about how to use addr2line to translate memory addresses to function names on systems with a hostile debugging environment.

Debugging a binary without debug symbols

There are times when there’s just no way to get debug symbols working, or where we’re simply debugging on a release version of the software. In those cases, we must directly debug the assembly code. The gdb text user interface (TUI) can be used to examine the disassebled code and the CPU registers. It can be enabled with these commands:

layout asm
layout regs
set print asm-demangle

Some useful keybindings in this mode:

  • Arrows: scroll the disassemble window
  • CTRL+p/n: Navigate history (previously done with up/down arrows)
  • CTRL+b/f: Go backward/forward one character (previously left/right arrows)
  • CTRL+d: Delete character (previously “Del” key)
  • CTRL+a/e: Go to the start/end of the line

This screenshot shows how we can infer that an empty RefPtr is causing a crash in some WebKit code.

Wake up an unresponsive gdb on ARM

Sometimes, when you continue (‘c’) execution on ARM there’s no way to stop it again unless a breakpoint is hit. But there’s a trick to retake the control: just send a harmless signal to the process.

kill -SIGCONT 1234

Know which GStreamer thread id matches with each gdb thread

Sometimes you need to match threads in the GStreamer logs with threads in a running gdb session. The simplest way is to ask it to GThread for each gdb thread:

(gdb) set output-radix 16
(gdb) thread apply all call g_thread_self()

This will print a list of gdb threads and GThread*. We only need to find the one we’re looking for.

Generate a pipeline dump from gdb

If we have a pointer to the pipeline object, we can call the function that dumps the pipeline:

(gdb) call gst_debug_bin_to_dot_file_with_ts((GstBin*)0x15f0078, GST_DEBUG_GRAPH_SHOW_ALL, "debug")

By eocanha at April 20, 2021 06:00 AM

April 15, 2021

Introducing CSS Grid Inspector

Surfin’ Safari

CSS Grid Layout is a web-standard layout system used to define a grid structure of rows and columns in CSS. HTML elements can then be distributed to the resulting grid cells to achieve a flexible and predictable layout.

This layout system is highly capable, but using it requires a shift away from the mental models of the past. When the grid definition itself is not visible (only its effects on the placement of items are visible), you can easily get lost and confused, not understanding why the layout doesn’t work as intended.

Concert poster demo using CSS Grid LayoutConcert poster demo using CSS Grid Layout by Jen Simmons

When you can see both the structure of the grid and its effects in context on the page, it makes working with CSS Grid Layout more approachable and easier to reason about.

Page Overlay showing grid constraints of concert poster demo using CSS Grid LayoutOverlay showing grid structure of concert poster demo

CSS Grid Inspector is a new tool in Web Inspector which helps you visualize grids defined using CSS Grid Layout notation and verify that elements are positioned as expected. It was introduced in Safari Technology Preview 123.

Visualizing grids

CSS Grid Inspector shows a page overlay on top of HTML elements which are CSS Grid containers. An element is a CSS Grid container when its display CSS property has a value of either grid or inline-grid.

You can turn on the overlay for a CSS Grid container in one of two ways:

  • Click the “grid“ badge shown next to the element in the DOM Tree outline of the Elements Tab.
  • Open the new Layout panel in the details sidebar of the Elements Tab, then click the checkbox next to the corresponding element in the Grid Overlays list.
A “grid” badge shown next to <div id=”css-grid-demo”> in the DOM Tree outline. Layout sidebar panel with the overlay enabled for the “div#css-grid-demo” CSS Grid container

The overlay can show:

  • Lines which define the grid rows, and columns (a.k.a. grid tracks)
  • Spacing between grid tracks (a.k.a. grid gaps)
  • Labels for line numbers and grid track sizes
  • Labels for grid line names, and grid area names
Elements positioned on a grid defined with CSS Grid LayoutElements positioned on a grid defined with CSS Grid Layout CSS Grid Inspector overlay showing labels for grid line numbers and grid track sizesCSS Grid Inspector overlay showing labels for grid line numbers and grid track sizes

Configuring the CSS Grid Inspector overlay

The CSS Grid Inspector overlay can show many properties of a grid’s components according to the CSS properties used. Showing everything all at once can be overwhelming. Depending on your workflow, you may prefer to see all or just a subset.

Use the settings in the Page Overlay Options section of the Layout panel in the details sidebar to configure the level of detail presented with the overlay. Changes are applied immediately and saved across Web Inspector sessions.

You can toggle the following options:

  • Track Sizes: shows a label with the user-authored value for the track size or auto if the value is not explicitly set. This helps visual inspection by matching the user-authored value set in CSS with the corresponding grid track on the page.
  • Line Numbers: shows a label with the ordinal and the reverse ordinal of explicit grid lines. The reverse ordinal is useful when referencing lines backward from the end. For example, 1 -4 means “the first and the fourth last”.
  • Line Names: shows a label with the user-defined name for a grid line or the implicit grid line name derived from a grid area name. When undefined, this does nothing. Learn more about implicit grid line names on MDN.
  • Area Names: shows a label with the user-defined name for a group of cells. When undefined, this does nothing.
  • Extended Grid Lines: extends grid lines infinitely in their respective directions. This is useful for checking alignment with other elements on the page.

To change the overlay color, use the color swatch next to the corresponding element in the Grid Overlays list found in the Layout sidebar panel. The new color will be saved for that element on that page and is remembered across Web Inspector sessions. When you return later to inspect the same element, the overlay will use the color you picked.

Try it out

If you’re using Safari Technology Preview 123 or a later release, you can inspect the example below to try out the CSS Grid Inspector on this page. Open Web Inspector, go to the Elements Tab, switch to the Layout sidebar panel, then toggle the grid overlay for the element marked div#css-grid-demo.


If you encounter any issues, please file a report at
If you want to share feedback or ideas, please send them to us on Twitter: @webkit.

Note: Learn more about Web Inspector from the Web Inspector Reference documentation.

April 15, 2021 09:00 AM

April 13, 2021

Enrique Ocaña: GStreamer WebKit debugging tricks using GDB (1/2)

Igalia WebKit

I’ve been developing and debugging desktop and mobile applications on embedded devices over the last decade or so. The main part of this period I’ve been focused on the multimedia side of the WebKit ports using GStreamer, an area that is a mix of C (glib, GObject and GStreamer) and C++ (WebKit).

Over these years I’ve had to work on ARM embedded devices (mobile phones, set-top-boxes, Raspberry Pi using buildroot) where most of the environment aids and tools we take for granted on a regular x86 Linux desktop just aren’t available. In these situations you have to be imaginative and find your own way to get the work done and debug the issues you find in along the way.

I’ve been writing down the most interesting tricks I’ve found in this journey and I’m sharing them with you in a series of 7 blog posts, one per week. Most of them aren’t mine, and the ones I learnt in the begining of my career can even seem a bit naive, but I find them worth to share anyway. I hope you find them as useful as I do.

Breakpoints with command

You can break on a place, run some command and continue execution. Useful to get logs:

break getenv
 # This disables scroll continue messages
 # and supresses output
 set pagination off
 p (char*)$r0

break grl-xml-factory.c:2720 if (data != 0)
 call grl_source_get_id(data->source)
 # $ is the last value in the history, the result of
 # the previous call
 call grl_media_set_source (send_item->media, $)
 call grl_media_serialize_extended (send_item->media, 

This idea can be combined with watchpoints and applied to trace reference counting in GObjects and know from which places the refcount is increased and decreased.

Force execution of an if branch

Just wait until the if chooses a branch and then jump to the other one:

6 if (i > 3) {
(gdb) next
7 printf("%d > 3\n", i);
(gdb) break 9
(gdb) jump 9
9 printf("%d <= 3\n", i);
(gdb) next
5 <= 3

Debug glib warnings

If you get a warning message like this:

W/GLib-GObject(18414): g_object_unref: assertion `G_IS_OBJECT (object)' failed

the functions involved are: g_return_if_fail_warning(), which calls to g_log(). It’s good to set a breakpoint in any of the two:

break g_log

Another method is to export G_DEBUG=fatal_criticals, which will convert all the criticals in crashes, which will stop the debugger.

Debug GObjects

If you want to inspect the contents of a GObjects that you have in a reference…

(gdb) print web_settings 
$1 = (WebKitWebSettings *) 0x7fffffffd020

you can dereference it…

(gdb) print *web_settings
$2 = {parent_instance = {g_type_instance = {g_class = 0x18}, ref_count = 0, qdata = 0x0}, priv = 0x0}

even if it’s an untyped gpointer…

(gdb) print user_data
(void *) 0x7fffffffd020
(gdb) print *((WebKitWebSettings *)(user_data))
{parent_instance = {g_type_instance = {g_class = 0x18}, ref_count = 0, qdata = 0x0}, priv = 0x0}

To find the type, you can use GType:

(gdb) call (char*)g_type_name( ((GTypeInstance*)0x70d1b038)->g_class->g_type )
$86 = 0x2d7e14 "GstOMXH264Dec-omxh264dec"

Instantiate C++ object from gdb

(gdb) call malloc(sizeof(std::string))
$1 = (void *) 0x91a6a0
(gdb) call ((std::string*)0x91a6a0)->basic_string()
(gdb) call ((std::string*)0x91a6a0)->assign("Hello, World")
$2 = (std::basic_string<char, std::char_traits<char>, std::allocator<char> > &) @0x91a6a0: {static npos = <optimized out>, _M_dataplus = {<std::allocator<char>> = {<__gnu_cxx::new_allocator<char>> = {<No data fields>}, <No data fields>}, _M_p = 0x91a6f8 "Hello, World"}}
(gdb) call SomeFunctionThatTakesAConstStringRef(*(const std::string*)0x91a6a0)

See: 1 and 2

By eocanha at April 13, 2021 10:49 AM

April 04, 2021

Manuel Rego: :focus-visible in WebKit - March 2021

Igalia WebKit

Another month is gone, and we are back with another status update (see January and February ones).

This is about the work Igalia is doing on the implementation of :focus-visible in WebKit. This is a part of the Open Prioriziatation campaign and being sponsored by many people. Thank you!

The work on March has slowed down, so this status update is smaller than previous ones. Main focus has been around spec discussions trying to reach agreement.

Implementation details

The initial patch is available in the last Safari Technology Preview (STP) releases behind a runtime flag, but it has an annoying bug that was causing the body element to match :focus-visible when you used the keyboard to move focus. The issue was fixed past month but it hasn’t been included on a STP release yet (hopefully it’ll made it in release 124). Apart from that some minor patches related to implementation details have landed too. But this was just a small part of the work during March.

In addition I realized that :focus-visible appears in the Chromium and Firefox DevTools, so I took a look about how to make that happen on WebKit too. At that point I realized that :focus-within, which has been shipping for a long time, isn’t available in WebKit Web Inspector yet, so I cooked a simple patch to add it there. However that hasn’t landed yet, because it needs some UI rework, otherwise the list of pseudo-classes is going to be too long and not looking nice on the inspector. So the patch is waiting for some changes on the UI before it can be merged. Once that’s solved, adding :focus-within and :focus-visible to the Web Inspector is going to be pretty straight forward.

Spec discussions

This was the main part of the work during March, and the goal was to reach some agreement before finishing the implementation bits.

The main issue was how :focus-visible should work when a script moves focus. The behavior from the current implementations was not interoperable, the spec was not totally clear and, as explained on the previous report, in order to clarify this I created a set of new tests. These tests demonstrated some interesting incompatibilities. Based on this, we compared the results with the widely used polyfill as well. We found that there were various misalignments on tricky cases which generated significant discussions on which was correct, and why. After considerable discussion with people from Google and Mozilla, it looks like we have finally reached an agreement on the expectations.

Next was to see if we could clarify the text so that these cases couldn’t be interpreted in importantly incompatible ways, and following the advice from the CSS Working Group, I worked on a PR for the HTML spec trying to define when a browser should draw a focus indicator, and thus match :focus-visible. There some discussion about which elements should always match :focus-visible and how to define that in a normative text was raised (as some elements like <select> draw a focus ring in some browsers and not other when clicked, and some elements like <input type="date"> allow keyboard input or not depending on the platform). The discussion is still ongoing, and we’re still trying to find the proper way to define this in the HTML spec. Anyway if we manage to do that, that would be a great step forward regarding interoperability of :focus-visible implementations, and a big win for the final people using this feature.

Apart from that I’ve also created a test for my proposal about how :focus-visible should work in combination with Shadow DOM, but I don’t think I want to open that can of worms until the other part is done.

Some numbers

Let’s take a look to the numbers again, though things have moved slowly this time.

  • 21 PRs merged in WPT (1 in March).
  • 17 patches landed in WebKit (3 in March).
  • 7 patches landed in Chromium.
  • 2 PRs merged in CSS spcs (1 in March).
  • 1 PR merged in HTML spec.

Next steps

The main goal for April would be to close the spec discussions and land the PRs in HTML spec, so we can focus again in finishing the implementation in WebKit.

However if reaching an agreement to make these changes on HTML spec is not possible, probably we can still land some patches on the implementation side, to add some support for script focus on the WebKit side.

Stay tuned for more updates!

April 04, 2021 10:00 PM

March 31, 2021

Release Notes for Safari Technology Preview 123

Surfin’ Safari

Note: The original end revision for this release was incorrect. These release notes have been updated for the set of changes included in the corrected revision range.

Safari Technology Preview Release 123 is now available for download for macOS Big Sur and macOS Catalina. If you already have Safari Technology Preview installed, you can update in the Software Update pane of System Preferences on macOS.

This release covers WebKit revisions 273903-274641.

Web Inspector

  • Elements Tab
    • Enabled CSS grid badges by default (r274575)
    • Made the border color of the grid badge match to the corresponding outline (r273992)
    • Styles details sidebar panel
      • Fixed pseudo-class checkboxes appearing cramped after resizing window at narrow widths (r274465)
    • Layout details sidebar panel
      • Enabled by default (r274466)
      • Changed to persist user-defined CSS grid overlay colors (r273912)
      • Added button to jump to grid container element (r274157)
      • Added checkbox to toggle all grid overlays (r274268)
      • Improved grid overlay to adjust for element transforms (rotation, scale, etc.) (r274096)
      • Improved grid overlay to adjust for element inside iframes (r274464)
  • Sources Tab
    • Fixed syntax highlighting for JSX files that aren’t indicated as being JSX (r274230)
  • Timelines Tab
    • Fixed trackpad scrolling in timelines (r274091)
  • Storage Tab
    • Changed to use native datetime-local input for changing expires value in cookie popover (r274593)

CSS Aspect Ratio

  • Enabled support for the CSS aspect-ratio property by default (r274424)
  • Added support for aspect-ratio in intrinsic sizing calculations (r274068)
  • Implemented CSS aspect-ratio interpolation (r274415)
  • Treated flexbox min-intrinsic like *-content (r274419)


  • Changed to consider intrinsic sizes as automatic whenever the block axis of the flex item is the flexible box main size (r273955)
  • Fixed orthogonal items with percentage sizes in Flexbox (r273958)
  • Prevented radio buttons used as a flex item from shrinking below its size (r274411)
  • Fixed grid track sizing when using relative sized items in auto column tracks (r274596)
  • Fixed replaced element definiteness as a grid-item (r274099)
  • Fixed position: sticky behavior in a table with dir=RTL (r273982)
  • Fixed :focus-visible to not match the body element after a keyboard event (r274365)
  • Prevented word-wrap and overflow-wrap from overriding hyphens (r274008)

Web Animations

  • Changed border-width, column-width, outline-width, perspective, flex-grow, and flex-shrink to not allow negative values (r274142)
  • Corrected blending for column-width and column-count CSS properties (r274147)
  • Corrected blending of the flex-basis CSS property (r274198)
  • Corrected auto value handling when blending z-index (r274055)
  • Fixed setKeyframes() to preserve the animation’s current offset (r274165)
  • Fixed interpolation of clip CSS property (r274391)
  • Fixed interpolation of orphans and widows CSS properties (r274383)
  • Improved background-size interpolation (r274234)
  • Improved blending of Length and other Length-related types (r274038)
  • Improved font-variation-settings interpolation (r274235)
  • Supported animation of perspective-origin property (r274355)


  • Removed the Origin header if the navigation request goes from POST to GET (r273905)
  • Fixed selecting text via mouse drag in image documents to not trigger click events (r274305)
  • Changed to cancel image loader events after first dispatch (r274357)
  • Prevented dynamic import in service worker (r274404)
  • Increased resource load priority of async scripts from low to medium (r274145)
  • Fixed IndexedDB transactions outdated immediately after it just created (r274269)
  • WebGL APIs are aware of AllowShared (r274438)


  • Implemented Error#cause (r274552)
  • Optimized Boolean constructor calls in DFG and FTL (r274037)
  • Fixed attribute-changing of global variables (r274308)


  • Update wasm ref.func to prepare wasm-function-references proposal (r273962)


  • Added basic (non-momentum) wheel event handling for scroll snap (r274381)


  • Fixed <img> to render RTL text correctly in alt text (r274532)


  • Updated PDF frame conversion (r274377)


  • Fixed video controls staying on screen indefinitely after interacting with the time scrubber (r274293)
  • Fixed MediaRecorder.requestData() not returning all captured media after a pause (r274154)

March 31, 2021 05:50 PM

March 11, 2021

Release Notes for Safari Technology Preview 122

Surfin’ Safari

Safari Technology Preview Release 122 is now available for download for macOS Big Sur and macOS Catalina. If you already have Safari Technology Preview installed, you can update in the Software Update pane of System Preferences on macOS.

This release covers WebKit revisions 272845-273903.

Web Inspector


  • Changed CSS properties that disallow negative values to not animate to negative values (r273001)
  • Changed blending of border-image-width to be discrete between auto values and other types (r273635)
  • Fixed border-image-outset to handle float values (r273478)
  • Fixed border-image-slice blending to account for the fill keyword (r273625)


  • Changed min-content and max-content keywords to behave as an initial value in block axis (r273206)
  • Changed CSS grid to not allow negative heights (r273470)
  • Fixed min- and max- widths of grid affected by ancestor (r273435)
  • Changed the initial value for border-image-outset to 0 (r273882)
  • Implemented :focus-visible (r273812, r272983)
  • Implemented the first case in Definite and Indefinite Sizes specifications in section 9.8 for flexbox (r273072)
  • Fixed runtime-disabled CSS features still appearing enabled via CSS.supports() (r273385)
  • Removed support in the CSS parser for -khtml- prefixed CSS values (r273637)
  • Removed support for pos and pixel prefixed CSS values (r273627)

CSS Color

  • Added experimental support for CSS Color 5 color-contrast() (r273683)
  • Added experimental support for CSS Color 5 color-mix() (r273244)
  • Added experimental support for CSS Color 5 Relative Color Syntax (r273127)
  • Changed color(lab ...) to serialize as color(lab ...) not lab() according to latest CSS Color 4 spec (r273211)
  • Fixed lab() and lch() colors to clamp out-of-bound values at parse time (r272909)
  • Fixed lch() colors to serialize as lch() (r273078)

CSS Aspect Ratio

  • Added support for aspect-ratio on flexbox items (r273193)
  • Changed an aspect-ratio that ends with forward slash to be treated as invalid (r273068)
  • Fixed aspect-ratio showing in computed styles when disabled (r273314)
  • Changed to take box-sizing into account in replaced element intrinsic sizing for aspect-ratio (r273753)


  • Enabled private methods (r273125)
  • Implemented private static methods (r273107)
  • Implemented top-level-await (r273225)
  • Implemented RegExp Match Indices (r273086)
  • Implemented GC verifier (r273138)
  • Added support for modules in Workers and Worklets (r273203)
  • Added support for modules in Service Workers (r273224)
  • Avoided performing toObject for options in new Intl constructors to align them to a new spec change (r273153)
  • Reduced promise reaction memory usage when there are multiple reactions (r273718)
  • Optimized object-reset expression (r273135)
  • Optimized Promise#then by avoiding function allocations in major case (r273605)
  • Micro-optimized for-in (r273766)
  • Threw TypeError when getFunctionRealm hits revoked Proxy (r273661)
  • Threw TypeError when TypedArray’s [[DefineOwnProperty]] failed (r273750)
  • Fixed delete with index for module namespace object when arbitrary module identifiers use index (r273816)


  • Extended wasm type with type index (r273813)
  • Implemented non-trapping float to int conversion (r272933)


  • Enabled Paint Timing (r273221, r273220)
  • Changed window proxy of detached iframe doesn’t respect updates to global values (r273901)
  • Fixed devicemotion and deviceorientation events to work in third-party iframes with Feature-Policy allowing it (r273444)


  • Fixed media segment getting incorrectly dropped when using negative timestampOffset or when source buffer appendWindow is set in MSE (r273461)
  • Fixed audio that stops playing when backgrounding a page that is playing and capturing audio (r273069)


  • Added support for WebRTC priority (r273550)
  • Fixed MediaRecorder.stop() to work correctly when recording has been paused (r272911)
  • Added support for BigInt as media-stream encryption key (r273158)


  • Added the ability for an embedded accessibility image description in an image file to be reported if available (r273214)
  • Fixed VoiceOver announces grid as having “0 columns” causing VoiceOver to not enter the grid (r273715)
  • Fixed VoiceOver incorrectly announcing groups in ARIA tree instances as empty (r273328)


  • Fixed scroll snapping when dragging scrollbars (r273690)

March 11, 2021 09:30 PM

March 03, 2021

Embracing the inevitable: It’s time for B2B financial services to take on digital

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-embracingtheinevitableitstimeforb2bfinancialservicestotakeondigital embed-internal-03"> <div> <h1 id="embracing-the-inevitable-its-time-for-b2b-financial-services-to-take-on-digital">Embracing the inevitable: It’s time for B2B financial services to take on digital</h1> <p>B2B brands must drive the same level of personal engagement that was once had with clients and customers across the boardroom table, but in digital.</p> </div> <div> <img src="/hlx_52caa66088d7c12096570745d799e1a84ba741ab.jpeg" alt="Woman at desk with laptop in video meeting"> </div> <div> <p>By Christopher Young</p> <p>Posted on 03-03-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>For years, the B2B side of financial services succeeded without needing to make a focused investment in digital capabilities, until 2020 arrived and pandemic changed everything. While face-to-face business interactions essentially shut down, other trends emerged that depended on digital, such as buyers doing more research online and embracing mobile more than ever. Marketers were forced to adapt to a digital way of doing business.</p> <p>There is a new sense of urgency to drive the same level of personal engagement you once had with clients and customers across the boardroom table, only in a digital format. B2B brands can seize this newfound digital opportunity to redefine client experiences and grow relationships and business in unexpected ways.</p> <p>We asked experts from Adobe’s Digital Strategy Group, product marketing, and one of our strategic partners why it’s vital for financial services to embrace digital now — and how it can position you for success in 2021.</p> <p>“There’s a lot more that we can do digitally than we ever thought possible,” said Alarice Cesareo Lonergan, IBM, partner, NA financial services, enterprise strategy &amp; iX market leader. “By providing content and sharing perspectives more broadly, you might attract a whole new segment of potential clients.</p> <h3 id="switch-your-focus">Switch your focus</h3> <p>Direct-to-consumer businesses already see experience as the primary means of competitive differentiation. They’re well-versed in using physical <em>and</em> digital channels to attract customers. To differentiate in a sustainable way, B2B brands need to look towards what the most successful B2C brands are doing, and change their focus from products and services to experiences.</p> <p><img src="/hlx_423b425e11fcc6c97dd957a5591428808a4a7c1b.png" alt="Infographic: differences in CX approach between B2B and B2C"></p> <p>“Customer expectations have changed,” said Adrienne Whitten, director of product and segment marketing at Adobe. “Even the consumer side of the same financial services businesses have set the bar.”</p> <p>“We see more examples of banks consolidating the martech stack across B2B and B2C,” said Adobe’s Karen Cha, senior analyst, digital strategy group. “They’ll take advanced processes that the B2C side is using and leverage for stronger processes on the B2B side.”</p> <p>Some firms are already forging ahead. They’re investing in all-digital ways to engage customers, including developing content like blogs, case studies, webinars, and podcasts. But reaching clients regularly with content that exactly fits their journey stage requires technology.</p> <p><img src="/hlx_447ca80626378dd15c6041f8afc9d120c9c9c9a4.png" alt="Infographic: plans businesses have to address customer engagement challenges"></p> <p><em>Reshaping the Customer Experience: July 2020 COVID-19 Pulse Survey, Celent</em></p> <p>“You need to take a look at the processes where you can interject automation and amp up the digital capabilities for more useful and engaging interactions,” said Lonergan.</p> <h3 id="digitals-time-is-now">Digital’s time is now</h3> <p>Enterprise sales have already embraced digital channels with strategies that financial services can adopt to accelerate growth — and it’s not too late.</p> <p>“Those who didn’t establish a digital foundation yet aren’t that far behind, because there are lots of tools and technologies they can invest in now to help them overcome that hurdle,” Lonergan said.</p> <p>Customer demographics are also compelling a switch to digital. Millennials and Gen Z are moving up — they comprise 55 percent of directors, senior directors, and the C/VP level, according to the “Tech Buyers Generational Insights Research” by Adobe and PK Global (2020). The new generation was brought up in a different environment and depends on technology. They prefer digital as a way to interact, without the need for humans or phones. And they prioritize thought leadership and other online content over product-specific information like features, benefits, and roadmaps.</p> <h3 id="aim-for-the-north-star">Aim for the North Star</h3> <p>Many businesses now use account-based marketing (ABM) to identify and pursue qualified opportunities and high-value accounts, and to provide relevant experiences that generate more revenue, more quickly.</p> <p>“Sales and business leaders may not understand how digital can play a role in driving conversions, sales, and revenues,” said Lisa Sheth, head of digital strategy, Adobe. “By establishing organizational buy-in, you can work toward a digital mindset and foundation.”</p> <p>The digital capabilities your business needs start with personalization across channels, purposeful content, measurement and attribution, and journey management.</p> <ol> <li><strong>Personalize across channels</strong></li> </ol> <p>“Start with personalization to simulate the connection you’ve had in person,” Lonergan said. “Target and create that experience so it feels tailored for your customer. You’ll attract the customer with the experiences you’re going to deliver to them.”</p> <p>You need to coordinate touches across digital and in-person channels — when we have them again. Great experiences keep customers loyal, happy, and coming back.</p> <p>“We see a need to drive the empathy and deep connection between humans in a digital way,” said Lonergan. “That should be top of mind in 2021 across financial institutions.”</p> <ol start="2"> <li><strong>Deliver content that resonates</strong></li> </ol> <p>Ask yourself what content you need to develop to attract a particular persona or buying group. Determine what’s resonated well in the past and since the pandemic. Then engage the right people within each business account at complementary touchpoints throughout their journey</p> <p>“One of the largest banks went from a handful of webinars to hundreds,” said Sheth. “That’s how they’ve been able to continue their conversations and stay top of mind.</p> <ol start="3"> <li><strong>Track your marketing impact</strong></li> </ol> <p>You can’t improve what you can’t measure. Analyze marketing impact by tracking the progress of activities that are part of your digital initiative. Prove the impact of digital marketing by attributing revenue to the points where’s it’s generated — and then fine-tune to improve the results.</p> <ol start="4"> <li><strong>Design the complete experience</strong></li> </ol> <p>Technology, manufacturing, and other B2B verticals are emulating B2C by creating digital journeys that personalize the end-to-end experience. Financial services companies need to follow their lead.</p> <p>“You can architect an end-to-end experience and determine where you can use automation to personally engage the customer,” Lonergan said. You also need to evaluate which points could benefit from human interaction, either virtual or in person</p> <div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-experiencecloud embed-internal-experiencecloud"> <div><p><img src="/hlx_34720ecd0ad7c3510509b6fa3a9337f0696639ab.png" alt=""></p> <h3 id="adobe-experience-cloud">Adobe Experience Cloud</h3> <p>AI-driven customer experience applications for marketing, analytics, advertising, and commerce.</p> <p><a href="">Learn more</a></p></div> </div> <h3 id="taking-the-inevitable-leap">Taking the inevitable leap</h3> <p>Responding to the pandemic has given financial services a push into the digital future more quickly than you might have imagined. But if you’re like many B2B marketers, you may discover you actually prefer a mix of physical and digital channels. Sixty-five percent of B2B decision makers believe the new sales model is at least as effective as it was before COVID-19, according to McKinsey, May 2020.</p> <p>To learn more about the steps you need to take, how to proceed, and the success other B2B financial services marketers are having, read our article <a href="">on implementing the account-based experience mindset in commercial banking.</a></p> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured posts:</h2> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> <div> <p>Topics: Insights &amp; Inspiration, Digital Transformation, Personalization, Financial Services, Experience Cloud,</p> <p>Products: Experience Cloud, Marketo&nbsp;Engage,</p> </div> </div>

March 03, 2021 12:00 AM

Go paperless in the workplace with Acrobat online PDF tools

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-gopaperlessintheworkplacewithacrobatonlinepdftools embed-internal-03"> <div> <h1 id="go-paperless-in-the-workplace-with-acrobat-online-pdf-tools">Go paperless in the workplace with Acrobat online PDF tools</h1> <p>Work is stressful enough without unsightly clutter on your desk. Adobe Acrobat can help you go paperless.</p> </div> <div> <img src="/hlx_c1f3633366b4126ec86a24c8b1479c2513e47651.jpeg" alt="Go paperless with online PDF tools"> </div> <div> <p>By Adobe Document Cloud Team</p> <p>Posted on 03-03-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>Most offices wrestle with an all-too-common problem: What to do with all the paper? It piles up on desks and gets crammed into folders, creating unsightly clutter and organizational chaos. Even with a good file management system, the clutter and sheer volume of paper files make it much too easy for important documents to be misplaced, lost, or even stolen. Your workday is stressful enough without having to wrangle reams of paper around the office. If you’re ready to save the planet and your sanity, Adobe Acrobat is here to help.</p> <div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-acrobat embed-internal-documentcloud"> <div><p><img src="/hlx_3e0e58654cbc37f0005f6ba2a61edb9314c3feaf.png" alt=""></p> <h3 id="adobe-acrobat">Adobe Acrobat</h3> <p>Stay connected to your team with simple workflows across desktop, mobile, and web — no matter where you’re working.</p> <p><a href="">Learn more</a></p></div> </div> <p>Adobe Document Cloud offerings can help make going paperless as smooth as possible. <a href="">Adobe Scan</a> is a simple yet powerful mobile application for digitizing paper documents and reducing waste. Once you’ve started the digitization process, Acrobat <a href="">online PDF tools</a> can help you manage your new digital documents. You can give these tools a try in any browser to reduce paper use and increase your workplace efficiency:</p> <ul> <li>Combine similar or related documents, like monthly reports, into a single file using the <a href="">Merge PDFs</a> tool to create a comprehensive year-end document.</li> <li>The <a href="">Reorder PDF Pages</a> tool allows users to organize scanned documents, like a presentation deck, by moving pages around within the document to present content in your preferred order.</li> <li>The <a href="">Delete PDF Pages</a> tool lets users remove pages from a document that are outdated or unnecessary while keeping the relevant pages intact.</li> </ul> <h3 id="the-benefits-of-going-paperless">The benefits of going paperless</h3> <p>With simple and affordable digitization tools available, there’s no good reason to put off going paperless. On the contrary, there are many good reasons to make the transition as soon as possible.</p> <ul> <li><strong>Cost reduction</strong>: Paper costs a lot of money. Some studies have estimated that businesses spend as much as $80 per employee on paper every year. Add in the costs of ink and toner, printing and copying machines, machine maintenance, and storage space, and your bottom line can take quite a hit.</li> <li><strong>Environmental sustainability:</strong> Paper production is the third-largest industrial polluter in the United States, and it contributes to deforestation around the world. Going digital eliminates massive amounts of material, energy, and pollution costs associated with paper production and consumption.</li> <li><strong>Efficiency and accessibility:</strong> Paper systems also cost time. Employees spend hours every day looking for paper documents, resulting in tremendous efficiency and productivity losses. In a paperless office, they can locate documents with a simple keyword search from their desktop, phone, or any other connected device.</li> <li><strong>Collaboration:</strong> PDFs and digital documents enable easy communication and collaboration. Teammates can share files online and work together from a single digital copy rather than printing as many copies as there are collaborators.</li> <li><strong>Durability:</strong> Damage to paper records from fire, flood, or decay can devastate an organization. When you go paperless, you never have to worry that an unforeseen event could wipe out all of your important records and information as long as you’re maintaining digital backups of your documents.</li> </ul> <h3 id="tips-for-transitioning-to-a-paperless-office">Tips for transitioning to a paperless office</h3> <p>Making the transition to a paperless office is more complicated than digitizing all of your existing documents, however. In order to become a truly paperless organization, you need to put in place tools and systems to ensure that paperless work and collaboration is simple, effective, and enjoyable.</p> <ul> <li><strong>Create a plan:</strong> Creating a paperless office is a complex task. In order to make sure you’re setting the right goals and sticking to them, appoint an individual or a group of people to map your paper use and create a set of priorities and action items to reduce paper consumption throughout the organization.</li> <li><strong>Use a project management system:</strong> Instead of communicating and keeping track of ongoing projects with memos, sticky notes, and project binders, adopt a digital project management system. Such systems allow you to create timelines for deliverables, assign tasks to teams or individuals, and keep track of updates and progress across platforms.</li> <li><strong>Paperless meetings:</strong> Instead of providing all attendees with their own copy of meeting materials, share a digital version they can access during and after the meeting. Simply appoint one person in each meeting to keep digital minutes, which attendees can refer back to later.</li> <li><strong>Start using e-signatures:</strong> Cut down the amount of paper you use externally by switching to digital agreements for all of your client and vendor contracts. You can try sending a document to others for e-signing with the <a href="">Acrobat Request Signatures tool</a>.</li> </ul> <p>Are you ready to take your workplace completely into the digital realm? If so, sign up for a <a href="">free seven-day trial of Adobe Acrobat Pro DC</a> (then US$14.99/mo) for unlimited access to PDF and e-signing tools that can make the transition to paperless as easy and painless as possible.</p> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured posts:</h2> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> <div> <p>Topics: Responsibility, Future of Work, Productivity, Sustainability, Document Cloud,</p> <p>Products: Document Cloud, Scan, Acrobat</p> </div> </div>

March 03, 2021 12:00 AM

Discover the future of work management at Adobe Summit

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-discoverthefutureofworkmanagementatadobesummit embed-internal-03"> <div> <h1 id="discover-the-future-of-work-management-at-adobe-summit">Discover the future of work management at Adobe Summit</h1> <p>The Collaborative Work Management Track at Adobe Summit will introduce attendees to the collective power of Workfront and Adobe enterprise solutions.</p> </div> <div> <img src="/hlx_076f3ba302e7ba437a3fe5be94a0c54264a3a769.png" alt="Work Front an Adobe Company with abstract art in the background. "> </div> <div> <p>By Adobe Communications Team</p> <p>Posted on 03-03-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>Today, every business is a digital business — whether it is B2B or B2C, brick or click, or local or global. Over the last 12 months, accelerated digital transformation has pushed us all to rethink and refine the way we do business, including every aspect of how we power the people and processes behind digital work.</p> <p>That is why our recent acquisition of Workfront is so exciting. With Workfront coming under the Adobe umbrella, our customers will now have an agile enterprise work management solution that seamlessly connects <a href="">Adobe Creative Cloud</a>, <a href="">Adobe Experience Cloud</a>, and other applications and platforms. Now, customers will have a single system that supports the entire marketing lifecycle, from planning and collaboration to governance, maximizing productivity and creativity, and helping deliver even better real-time customer experiences. And during Adobe Summit, attendees will have a chance to preview it all.</p> <div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-summitregistration embed-internal-summit"> <div><p><img src="/hlx_87e087ba6e238de864812fc9d69832a821c85f64.jpeg" alt=""></p> <h3 id="expand-your-genius-at-adobe-summit">Expand your genius at Adobe Summit</h3> <p>A free virtual event April 27-29</p> <p>Every great event requires a great maker. Stay ahead of the latest CXM trends, learn industry best practices, and virtually connect with peers.</p> <p><a href="">Register for free</a></p></div> </div> <p>“Even before the acquisition, customers were leveraging integrations between Workfront and Adobe to work faster and smarter,” said Alex Shootman, VP and GM of Workfront, an Adobe company. “Summit gives us the chance to showcase the work of some of these innovative leaders, as well as the opportunity to preview our vision for a fully integrated marketing system of record that powers the people and work behind great customer experiences.”</p> <h3 id="the-workfront-experience-at-adobe-summit">The Workfront experience at Adobe Summit</h3> <p>Adobe Summit content will also pick up where Leap — Workfront’s annual conference — left off in 2020.</p> <p>“There are a few ways we’re folding our Leap content into Summit,” says Gary Clinger, head of marketing programs for Adobe. “The most significant is our Innovation Super Session featuring Alex Shootman. He will highlight Workfront’s unique perspective on work transformation and why the marriage of Workfront technology with Adobe solutions is so powerful for our customers.”</p> <p>Attendees can also expect to hear from current Workfront customers and joint Workfront/Adobe customers, including Monique Evans, Workfront systems analyst for Stanley Black &amp; Decker, Nick Zappas, senior manager of project management at The Walt Disney Company, and presenters from VaynerMedia and Informatica.</p> <p>“We also have over 25 breakout sessions within the Collaborative Work Management track,” Clinger says. “Sessions will range from work visibility, to agile work management, to adoption challenges surrounding new technology. About half of those sessions will include Workfront customers, so attendees can understand diverse use cases that, ideally, they can apply to their own businesses.”</p> <p>“Learning through customer examples and use cases is central to the Adobe Summit experience,” adds Wade Sherman, VP and head of the Adobe + Workfront Integration. These peer-led sessions, he explains, tend to drive deeper understanding and relevance for the broad audience of attendees.</p> <p>“We want to present meaningful examples, best practices, and use cases that are going to resonate the most with our customers,” Sherman says. “We know, in this case, that means showing real-world examples of customers utilizing Workfront as their marketing system of record — as the work management platform that ties together their use of Adobe Creative Cloud and Adobe Experience Cloud. Seeing that on the big screen or hearing a customer talk about that is so compelling because it grounds everyone in the message and helps to align it with their own business and work.”</p> <h3 id="building-on-a-solid-partnership-and-shared-customer-base">Building on a solid partnership and shared customer base</h3> <p>For many attendees, much of this will feel familiar — the two companies share more than 1,000 enterprise clients.</p> <p>“Workfront has been a premier Adobe partner since April 2020,” says Sherman. “We’ve been building on that synergy for some time.”</p> <p>Now, he adds, shared and individual customers will be able to do and manage even more, with integrated workflows and optimized work management solutions.</p> <p>“Bringing in a marketing system of record that serves to connect Adobe Creative Cloud Enterprise with Adobe Experience Cloud apps like AEM and Marketo helps manage the cradle-to-grave content ROI,” Sherman says. “Now teams can create beautiful, compelling content assets using our world-class creative products — and then manage, launch, and measure the effectiveness of those assets once they are out in the world. Workfront sits right in the middle of that. It’s the platform that enables it all — and increases content velocity by connecting the creative tools with marketing tools.”</p> <p>For other attendees, Summit will be a first look at Workfront and other Adobe enterprise solutions.</p> <p>“We’re anticipating a diverse audience, in terms of product knowledge and insights,” Clinger says. “Many attendees are already using Workfront and want to learn how to optimize or accelerate their workflows. Others are still learning the difference between project management and workflow management. Some are familiar with the combined power of Adobe and Workfront — people who are integrating the APIs already.”</p> <p>Sessions will offer universal takeaways, ensuring everyone walks away with a clear-cut sense of what Workfront could do for their organizations. “Our sessions and workshops are designed to create the right type of curiosity for our existing customers and Adobe customers who aren’t Workfront users — yet,” says Clinger “Our goal is that Summit attendees will want to continue the conversation post-Summit. We want them to experience how much potential exists in this acquisition, and see how our combined technology can really make a difference.”</p> <p>Shootman agrees. “There is a better way to manage marketing work,” he says. “Adobe understands that — and that’s where the Workfront integration comes in. We’re eager for people to come to Summit and learn about Workfront. Adobe is an expert at understanding the needs of the marketer, and during our sessions and training workshops, you’ll see how bringing in Workfront helps us support our customers even more.”</p> <p><em><a href="">Register for Adobe Summit for free</a>, then browse and register for targeted sessions and training workshops in the <a href=";search=">Collaborative Work Management Track</a>.</em></p> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured Posts:</h2> <ul> <li> <p><a href=""></a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href=""></a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href=""></a></p> </li> </ul> </div> <div> <p>Topics: Future of Work, Events, Adobe Summit, B2B, Experience Cloud,</p> <p>Products: Creative Cloud, Experience Cloud, Workfront</p> </div> </div>

March 03, 2021 12:00 AM

March 02, 2021

How YouTuber Amy Tangerine inspires creativity through craft

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-howyoutuberamytangerineinspirescreativitythroughcraft embed-internal-02"> <div> <h1 id="how-youtuber-amy-tangerine-inspires-creativity-through-craft">How YouTuber Amy Tangerine inspires creativity through craft</h1> <p>Amy Tangerine has cultivated a loyal community of creatives with her YouTube channel, with DIY videos edited with Adobe Premiere Pro.</p> </div> <div> <p><img src="/hlx_46231b66a9aee9cce6dba6d3abd387e812ca4a08.jpeg" alt="Colorful items strewn across turquoise background. "></p> <p><em>Image Source: Amy Tangerine.</em></p> </div> <div> <p>By Meagan Keane</p> <p>Posted on 03-02-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>Amy Tan is crafting a life she loves — and loves to look back on.</p> <p>After turning her passion for scrapbooking into a successful business, the creative entrepreneur and author is inspiring people around the world to take time for reflection through art. “I’m a very sentimental person, so I love memory-keeping and looking back on the most random things,” she says. “Crafting isn’t just a hobby. It’s a way of being that inspires people to live their best lives.”</p> <p>Tan has grown her business under the moniker Amy Tangerine — so as not to be confused with the similarly named author. In addition to taking on art and fashion design work for private clients, Tan has cultivated a loyal community of creatives with her YouTube channel, branded online workshops, podcast, and products. They flock to her not only for inspiration, but for permission.</p> <p>“People often put the brakes on their own creativity because they feel they should have a purpose, but that’s simply not the case,” says Tan. “Allow yourself permission to just play and see where it takes you, because it could trigger something else that makes you have a breakthrough. And if it doesn’t, it’s okay because you still spent time doing something that you enjoyed.”</p> <h2 id="helping-people-make-things--and-make-things-happen">Helping people make things — and make things happen</h2> <p>With more than 57,000 YouTube subscribers, video has become yet another creative outlet for Tan to share tips on everything from stickers and watercolors to traveler’s notebooks and craft room makeovers — with some family trip vlogs thrown in for good measure.</p> <p>Tan was inspired to create her YouTube channel in 2015. With minimal scrapbooking content available on the platform, she dove into the experience headfirst.</p> <p>“Being a YouTuber means you really just have to take the time to figure it out,” she says. “People who might have budget to hire a team can spend more time honing their craft, but then they don’t understand the little things that you might do to make it easier on yourself if you had to do this all on your own. I think that’s an important experience to have.”</p> <p>That’s why these days, Tan is the one who plans which shots she needs and shoots them herself using her Canon G7X Mark ii or her iPhone. And when she’s done, she’ll take <a href="">B-roll shots</a> of certain tools or materials in case she needs to splice them in during the editing process. Tan usually leaves the audio voiceover to the end so that she has the creative freedom she needs to craft in real-time.</p> <p>“While you’re doing something, sometimes you don’t really think about why you’re doing it. You just do it,” says Tan. “Afterwards I realize that it might be helpful for me to explain the reasoning behind certain things that I’ve done, and that’s when I’ll do the voiceover. People like to both see the process and hear my thoughts.”</p> <div class="embed embed-oembed embed-youtube"><div style="left: 0; width: 100%; height: 0; position: relative; padding-bottom: 56.25%;"><iframe src=";v=tDaIBw2u3es&amp;;kind=embed-youtube&amp;provider=youtube" style="border: 0; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; position: absolute;" allowfullscreen="" scrolling="no" allow="encrypted-media; accelerometer; clipboard-write; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" title="content from youtube" loading="lazy"></iframe></div></div> <h3 id="sharing-the-editing-responsibilities">Sharing the editing responsibilities</h3> <p>Although Tan is a big do-it-yourselfer, she does split the editing work with an editor, Amanda Benson, who uses <a href="">Adobe Premiere Pro</a> to pull everything together. It’s a trade-off Tan can live with — Benson can get the job done in half the time, which frees Tan to focus more attention on content creation.</p> <p>“I’m getting better and faster at editing, but my editor is so familiar with my style that it just makes sense for us to split the work,” says Tan.</p> <div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-premierepro embed-internal-creativecloud"> <div><p><img src="/hlx_6437eac3f9725128f1febd131fffb983cdd30b0b.png" alt="Inserting image..."></p> <h3 id="premiere-pro">Premiere Pro</h3> <p>Video editing that’s always a cut above.</p> <p><a href="">Learn more</a></p></div> </div> <p>Benson describes Tan’s style as “run-n-gun”, so she tries not to make the videos too cinematic because that wouldn’t feel genuine to Tan’s style. Instead, she lets the experiences Tan shoots speak for themselves. In Premiere Pro, Benson keeps clips in chronological order, so the adventure translates through the vlog. She also uses the Lumetri Color panel in Premiere Pro to make the videos bright and fun, just like Tan’s brand.</p> <p>“I use the Lumetri Color panel and the color scopes in Premiere Pro as my first step in color correcting and grading,” says Benson. “I love how you can do very basic corrections, but if you want to go above and beyond, you can create really cool and unique color looks. Lumetri is a great place to start.”</p> <p>The reason their collaboration works so well is twofold. First, Benson’s familiarity with Tan’s content and style means she just gets it, and she isn’t afraid to experiment. But none of it looks like an experiment — it’s all very seamless. And second, Tan shares what inspires her, so that Benson can draw direction and inspiration directly from the source. But the end goal is the same.</p> <p>“I want to consistently create content that resonates with people,” says Tan. “Everyone should realize that they can make things — and make things happen.”</p> <p><em>Watch the <a href=";list=PLHRegP5ZOj7CIVBmsN__kyOqdYewqRhwe&amp;index=29">Tips &amp; Tricks Tuesday session on IRL editing</a> and get access to host Valentina Vee’s <a href="">tutorial guide</a>.</em></p> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured Posts:</h2> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> <div> <p>Topics: Customer Stories, Creativity, Media &amp; Entertainment, Creative Cloud</p> <p>Products: Premiere Pro, Creative Cloud</p> </div> </div>

March 02, 2021 12:00 AM

Austin Community College prepares students for success in a digital future

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-austincommunitycollegepreparesstudentsforsuccessinadigitalfuture embed-internal-02"> <div> <h1 id="austin-community-college-prepares-students-for-success-in-a-digital-future">Austin Community College prepares students for success in a digital future</h1> <p>Adobe Creative Campus, Austin Community College, is dedicated to preparing students for success in a digital world.</p> </div> <div> <p><img src="/hlx_e3464be10ca920a264893b51d7eb2f93e6b14c99.jpeg" alt="The Paseo at ACC Highland campus"></p> <p><em>The Paseo at ACC Highland Campus, Building 2000 — January, Friday 22, 2021.</em></p> </div> <div> <h2 id="by-karen-mccavitt">By Karen McCavitt</h2> <p>Posted on 03-02-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>With 11 campuses and more than 70,000 students annually, Austin Community College District (ACC) is one of the largest community college systems in the nation. It’s also the top school in Texas for transferring into public universities, providing an affordable start for students pursuing a four-year degree. As part of the dynamic ecosystem of technology and art that thrives in the Austin area, the institution is dedicated to preparing students for success in a digital world. And, ACC is an Adobe Creative Campus — the country’s first community college to have that distinction.</p> <p>“Many companies look for digitally fluent employees well-versed in <a href="">Adobe Creative Cloud</a>,” says Thomas Nevill, Dean of Arts and Digital Media at Austin Community College. “As an Adobe Creative Campus, ACC gives students an advantage and helps them build digital portfolios in an increasingly online world.”</p> <p>Digital fluency is an important part of ACC’s 2025 Academic Master Plan, with Adobe Creative Cloud at the center of its Digital Literacy Equity and Inclusion for All (DLEI) initiative. As co-chair of the planning process, Nevill recognizes the need to integrate digital skills into every discipline — not only Arts and Digital Media but in Health Sciences, Education, Liberal Arts, and beyond. Today, Adobe Creative Cloud is available at no cost to employees and at a deep discount to students, and his goal is to make Adobe Creative Cloud free for both students and employees in the future. With Adobe Creative Cloud tools such as <a href="">Adobe XD</a>, ACC is bringing digital fluency to the community college curriculum, exposing people to digital skills who might not otherwise develop them. He wants people to explore the possibilities, and he’s not afraid to lead by example.</p> <p>“To create the final proposals for the Academic Master Plan, I decided to try something new and taught myself how to use <a href="">Adobe Premiere Rush</a>, complete with still shots, video, and voice-over,” Nevill says. “It was important for me to take that step and show people that if I can do it, anyone can.”</p> <p>Indeed, Adobe Creative Cloud tools such as Adobe XD and <a href="">Adobe Spark</a> are catching on across departments, from User Experience Design to Speech Communication, and ACC makes sure students and faculty have the training they need.</p> <div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-digitalliteracycc embed-internal-bigrockassets"> <div><p><img src="/hlx_f07df7196230fa129c7946bb099aafe35a8e2e2e.png" alt=""></p> <h3 id="adobe--digital-literacy">Adobe &amp; Digital Literacy</h3> <p>Become an Adobe Creative Campus to build digital literacy at your school.</p> <p><a href="">Learn more</a>.</p></div> </div> <h3 id="how-acc-is-planting-the-seeds-of-digital-fluency">How ACC is planting the seeds of digital fluency</h3> <p>As Associate Vice President of Academic Programs at ACC, Dr. Gaye Lynn Scott is eager to drive adoption of Adobe Creative Cloud. She oversees programs that reach up to 75 percent of students, including transfer programs in liberal arts, science, engineering, and math — and for her, digital fluency is critical across the board.</p> <p>“Students should all have the same opportunities to learn and succeed,” says Dr. Scott. “Becoming an Adobe Creative Campus exposes students to digital tools that will serve them in the world after graduation.”</p> <p>Dr. Scott is a firm believer in the power of “informal but intentional efforts” to drive adoption. That includes recruiting early adopters and seeding cross-talk among faculty, as well as practicing what she preaches. “I intend to be vocal whenever I can, encouraging faculty to replace their slide decks with Adobe Spark,” she says. “Spark is easy yet sophisticated, and it can be a great way to engage students.”</p> <p>Meanwhile, ACC invests in formal training to support both faculty and students. They rely heavily on Adobe tutorials and LinkedIn Learning tutorials, but the community college is finding creative ways to establish resident experts and get ideas flowing.</p> <p>“We’re developing a one-year faculty fellowship program around Adobe Creative Cloud, where fellows receive advanced training and get a stipend to redesign a course,” says Matthew Evins, Director of Academic Technology in the Teaching and Learning Excellence Division. “It’s a way to support faculty members who are serious about integrating digital tools into their courses — and a great way to show what’s possible.”</p> <p>Evins and his team not only train faculty to use technology in the classroom, they also set up audio/visual equipment and support websites. They even produce videos to supplement course materials, using <a href="">Adobe Premiere Pro</a> and <a href="">Adobe After Effects</a> to create polished, professional work. During the pandemic, the video production team was busy producing dozens of videos as faculty members looked for ways to replace in-person, hands-on instruction. And the team is increasingly focused on students — providing support for Adobe tools as well as wi-fi, laptops, tablets, and software to make sure students can succeed in their online courses.</p> <p><img src="/hlx_972658915537daa8b1bf8d7dc33ce4d86e596add.png" alt="Photo of a studio with a green-screen and chairs"></p> <p><em>The larger of the two multicam Radio, Television &amp; Film studios at ACC Highland Campus, Building 2000 — Wednesday, November 11, 2020.</em></p> <h3 id="students-bring-designs-to-life-with-adobe-xd">Students bring designs to life with Adobe XD</h3> <p>It’s no surprise that the User Experience (UX) Design program at ACC is already immersed in digital tools and technologies. “Many of our students are professional designers looking to transition into a UX career, so they already have extensive experience with Adobe Creative Cloud,” says Molly McClurg, Associate Professor of User Experience Design at ACC. “Instead of spending time on learning new tools, students get to focus on creativity and putting new ideas into the world.”</p> <p>Most of McClurg’s students are well-versed in <a href="">Adobe Photoshop</a>, <a href="">Adobe Illustrator</a>, and <a href="">Adobe InDesign</a>. But she has recently introduced a new tool into the mix — Adobe XD. It’s a fun, refreshing way to engage students in her Survey of User Experience Design course, where she teaches them how to research, ideate, prototype, and test solutions. Near the end of the semester, students conduct the entire design process, working in small teams to create a prototype they can show off.</p> <p>“Many students decided to address the affordable housing challenge in Austin,” says McClurg. “Because they’re just starting to explore UX design, we don’t put any constraints on them — so they really go big and experiment with fun ideas.”</p> <p>One of those ideas came from student Carson Stanch, who explored the idea of creating a tiny home for people with chronic medical conditions or mobility limitations, along with a smart home interface for easier control of door locks, lights, heaters, and appliances. Her team used Adobe XD to design <a href="">wireframes and a working prototype</a>.</p> <p>Another student, Amy Frazier, decided to tackle the need for safe restaurant takeout orders during the pandemic. Noticing that many local businesses lacked an online ordering process, she used Adobe XD to <a href="">mockup wireframes</a> that would make it easy for restaurants to take orders on mobile and desktop.</p> <p>Seeing their ideas solidified in wireframes and prototypes helps McClurg provide useful feedback. “Using Adobe XD, I can assess the details of the individual screens as well as the vision of how everything will work together,” she says. “Plus, students see their ideas come to life, and their faces light up. It’s exciting to see them discover that UX design could be their future.”</p> <h3 id="ready-for-the-job-market-with-communication-and-digital-skills">Ready for the job market with communication and digital skills</h3> <p>Digital fluency has also become essential in the liberal arts department, thanks to the dedication of faculty members like Theresa Glenn, Chair of Communication Studies. Glenn is on a mission to equip students with strong digital skills, an online portfolio, and a modern, tech-savvy resume as they enter the workforce.</p> <p>Glenn has found that Adobe Spark is an easy entry point to digital literacy. In her Introduction to Human Communication course, students have been using Adobe Spark to demonstrate their mastery of concepts they learn in her class. That includes conflict management skills such as active listening, perception checking, and assertive messaging — and students do a great job of modeling those techniques on camera.</p> <p>At the end of the semester, students pull everything together into an Adobe Spark website that serves two purposes, as Glenn points out. “Not only does this project serve as a final exam, students can link to it on their resumes to show employers their competencies in both communication and digital literacy,” she says.</p> <p>Students have taken the assignments and run with them, producing webpages that would impress potential employers. Check out <a href="">a Spark page created by student Amurri Davis</a> and <a href="">another from fellow student Tyler Langlais</a>.</p> <h3 id="the-college-experience-goes-paperless">The college experience goes paperless</h3> <p>ACC takes its commitment to digital literacy seriously, and that means using new tools and technologies beyond the classroom. A few years ago, the community college adopted <a href="">Adobe Sign</a> and <a href="">Adobe Acrobat DC</a> to go paperless and use e-signatures to make administrative processes more efficient. Today, ACC processes a few thousand electronic documents every month through Adobe Sign — and that number only continues to grow.</p> <p>“Our primary value as a community college is providing a good education for students, not processing documents — so the more streamlined we can get, the better,” says John Wilsonmay, Product Owner at ACC. “By increasing efficiency, Adobe Sign helps us keep tuition affordable while making the college experience easier and more enjoyable for students.”</p> <p>The community college uses Adobe Sign for many processes, including faculty onboarding forms, faculty performance evaluations, study abroad applications, and articulation agreements with other universities, which define transfer policies. During the pandemic, faculty members started using Adobe Sign to have students review and sign class rules agreements and syllabi.</p> <p>By moving to digital workflows and e-signatures, Wilsonmay estimates that ACC has reduced document processing time by as much as two weeks. With Adobe Acrobat DC, administrators create clearer, more effective forms — for example, using required fields to avoid missing information and pop-up boxes to minimize confusion. Instead of mailing or walking paper documents across campus, people rely on automated approval routing and an audit trail of signatures in Adobe Sign to keep things moving no matter how many people have to sign a document.</p> <p>ACC uses Box as its document storage solution, and integration with Adobe Sign makes it easy to send documents for signature while keeping them in a central repository, with the ability to set deadlines and track workflows. That’s good for everyone in the ACC community, who can focus on what really matters — student success.</p> <h3 id="helping-students-navigate-their-own-path-to-a-digital-future">Helping students navigate their own path to a digital future</h3> <p>Students at ACC are diverse and non-traditional — they might be finishing their high school diploma, earning a degree in nursing or computer science, or simply enriching their lives with a ceramics class. But they all have one thing in common: they are forging their own paths to success. With its commitment to digital fluency as an Adobe Creative Campus, ACC is ready to help them on their journeys.</p> <p>“No matter where students come from, we meet them where they are,” says Nevill. “That’s one of the most rewarding aspects of working at Austin Community College. We have so many unique and exciting ways to help them reach their goals.”</p> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured posts</h2> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> <div> <p>Topics: Insights &amp; Inspiration, Customer Stories, Education, Digital Literacy, Creative Cloud, Document Cloud</p> <p>Products: Creative Cloud, XD, Premiere Pro, After Effects, Acrobat, Sign</p> </div> </div>

March 02, 2021 12:00 AM

2020 digital economy index | a closer look at consumer electronics

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-2020digitaleconomyindexacloserlookatconsumerelectronics embed-internal-02"> <div> <h1 id="2020-digital-economy-index--a-closer-look-at-consumer-electronics">2020 digital economy index | a closer look at consumer electronics</h1> <p>After analyzing the digital economic landscape, we’ve found that electronics is one of three categories that has a heavy influence on the online economy trends.</p> </div> <div> <img src="/hlx_ce2d598a82b2636d9ca1908a3a20d52f78b936f2.jpeg" alt="Black and white photo of electronics"> </div> <div> <p>By Jill Steinhour</p> <p>Posted on 03-02-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>After analyzing the <a href="">digital economic landscape</a>, we have found that electronics is one of three categories (along with grocery and apparel) that has a heavy influence on the online economy trends. We are excited to share powerful data insights to help you understand and act on digital trends in consumer electronics. Let us take a closer look at this segment — the online shopping trends, price changes, and consumer technologies adoption.</p> <h3 id="online-shopping-trends">Online shopping trends</h3> <p>There has been steady growth in the consumer electronics segment since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic due to consumers’ shift to online shopping, but the growth was not as strong, compared to the rest of B2C ecommerce. Things changed around Black Friday and Cyber Monday — holiday shopping events drove an increased demand for electronics. During the holiday season CE retailers outpaced the overall growth in the first part of the season — check out the graph below for the details.</p> <p>While one in five consumers upgraded their home office in 2020, and one in three upgraded their distance learning environment, privacy remains to be a significant concern. Baby Boomers tend to be the most concerned, and Gen Z — the least concerned.</p> <p><img src="/hlx_45413a6db3499288360205e56cb592c1c3ef0221.png" alt=""></p> <h3 id="price-change-for-electronics">Price change for electronics</h3> <p>Electronics prices are now beginning to plateau, after years of innovation-fueled price reduction. The absorption of offline purchasing into the online electronics category and COVID associated demand have been key culprits. There has been a 44 percent drop in online prices for electronics between the years 2014 and 2020.</p> <p>Price (74 percent) is one of top three buying criteria of electronic devices, preceded by quality (82 percent) and ease of use (77 percent). Learn about the consumer decision-making process by examining the rank of each buying criteria in the <a href="">full report</a>.</p> <h3 id="penetration-of-consumer-technologies">Penetration of consumer technologies</h3> <p>Consumers picked up more electronic devices in 2020. When we asked consumers what devices they own, almost every trending product saw an increase. To illustrate, 31 percent of participants owned a smart speaker in 2020 (26 percent in 2019), 66 percent owned a laptop (62 percent in 2019), and 16 percent owned a car with voice assistant (12 percent in 2019).</p> <p>Virtual Reality (VR) technology still is not reaching the masses, with only 1 out of 4 consumers having tried VR. 1 out of 3 consumers have purchased a voice-controlled device in the past year, with Millennials and Gen Z leading the charge.</p> <p>These insights come from analyzing more than 1 trillion visits to U.S. based retail websites, as well as sales of more than 100 million unique products and a survey of 1,000 US consumers. If you would like to learn more insights about consumer electronics that will empower you to leverage the latest trends, read the full <a href="">2020 Digital Economy Index</a> report.</p> <div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-consumerelectronicsreport embed-internal-promotions"> <div><p><img src="/hlx_70a17ac6bcdf2c8ef40555b187eeeb0d0a309258.png" alt=""></p> <h3 id="consumer-electronics-report">Consumer Electronics Report</h3> <p>Breaking down shopper data to build insight-driven strategies.</p> <p><a href="">Read the report</a></p></div> </div> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured posts:</h2> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> <div> <p>Topics: Trends &amp; Research, Insights &amp; Inspiration, Manufacturing, Retail, Experience Cloud,</p> <p>Products: Experience Platform,</p> </div> </div>

March 02, 2021 12:00 AM

Creativity for All: Adobe and Sundance nurture next-generation filmmakers

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-creativityforalladobeandsundancenurturenextgenerationfilmmakers embed-internal-02"> <div> <h1 id="creativity-for-all-adobe-and-sundance-nurture-next-generation-filmmakers">Creativity for All: Adobe and Sundance nurture next-generation filmmakers</h1> </div> <div> <img src="/hlx_9503d2a4d8a0ec487a14923b40b17991966828fd.png" alt="Sundance Ignite short film challenge: young filmmakers at work"> </div> <div> <p>By Adobe Corporate Communications</p> <p>Posted on 03-02-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>Everyone has a story to tell, but for aspiring filmmakers who want to share their stories with the world, having mentors, a platform to showcase their work, and the resources to invest in creative exploration can make all the difference.</p> <p>To give everyone an opportunity to tell their story, we’re once again collaborating with the Sundance Institute on the <a href="">Sundance Ignite x Adobe Short Film Challenge</a>. Both Sundance and Adobe, a founding partner in the program, share a mission to inspire creativity and bring diverse stories to life. Through the challenge, we’ll identify 10 new Sundance Ignite x Adobe Fellows, who will have yearlong access to powerful mentorships and professional development opportunities.</p> <p>The challenge is open now through April 6. To enter the challenge, documentary and narrative filmmakers between the ages of 18 and 25 must submit a 1- to 15-minute short film that demonstrates their creative vision and unique voice.</p> <h3 id="designed-to-ignite-your-film-career">Designed to ignite your film career</h3> <p>Since 2015, Adobe has partnered with Sundance Ignite to create a path for 80 young filmmakers to become better at their craft, giving them the opportunity to be mentored by experienced filmmakers, receive feedback and direction on their work, collaborate with peers, and gain more exposure to the industry.</p> <p>The 10 challenge winners selected as fellows will begin their fellowship with a weeklong virtual lab and orientation. Throughout the year, they’ll work with a Sundance Institute alumni mentor, be eligible for internships and program opportunities, receive an artist grant to produce future work, and receive a complimentary one-year Adobe Creative Cloud membership.</p> <p>Along with these opportunities, one of the program highlights is that fellows have the opportunity to join the 2022 <a href="">Sundance Film Festival</a>, one of the premier industry events for independent filmmakers.</p> <h3 id="dont-just-take-our-word-for-it">Don’t just take our word for it…</h3> <p>The Sundance Ignite program has laid the groundwork for emerging creators to grow their careers. 10 fellows have premiered their films at Sundance, 9 fellows have interned at labs in the film industry, and 5 fellows have participated in other fellowships, intensives, or summits.</p> <p>“For a lot of young people, Sundance has been an alternative film festival to celebrate independent film and independent filmmakers. So, to me as a young person, the Ignite program and Sundance represent everything that I want in the film industry, which is inclusivity. It represents diverse voices. It represents democratizing creativity, filmmaking, and just storytelling in general,” says Carol Nguyen, a 2018 Sundance Ignite x Adobe Fellow who debuted her latest film, “No Crying at the Dinner Table,” at the Toronto International Film Festival in 2019.</p> <p>Lance Oppenheim, a 2019 fellow, produced a feature documentary, “Some Kind of Heaven,” that was named an official selection for the 2020 Sundance Film Festival. He says one of the best parts of the Ignite program is the mentorship element. Lance’s mentor was Jeff Orlowski, a filmmaker he’s long admired. Jeff and Lance would talk several times a month and he eventually became a producer on Lance’s film.</p> <p>“With Jeff, we really bonded. Being in a very specific situation where I was dealing with so many different kinds of creative and business worlds while we’re trying to get this feature off the ground, our relationship really deepened,” Lance says.</p> <p><a href="">2017 fellow Charlotte Regan</a>, whose film “Fry Up” premiered at the 2018 Sundance Film Festival, adds that the support from peers is invaluable.</p> <p>“<a href="">Sundance Ignite</a> really showed me how much your work can improve with collaboration. I’ve never had a group of peers to pass work back and forth between each other, give each other notes and help out on each other’s shoots,” she says. “I come from a background of self-shooting music videos, and they’re a pretty lonely place creatively — it’s you, your camera, and, at most, a camera assistant. So having this group of friends who actually gives you the time you need to chat about and improve your work is incredible.”</p> <p>Lance says that aspiring filmmakers who are interested in applying to the challenge should “submit stuff that you believe in and that you are very passionate about.”</p> <p>“You don’t need to have made 10 short films to be an Ignite Fellow,” he says. “Some filmmakers who were in my class, it was their first film, so don’t be intimidated by the idea of being an experienced filmmaker. Just make the things you believe in and put your best foot forward.”</p> <p><em>Learn more about</em> <em>the</em> <em><a href="">Sundance Ignite program</a> and get ready to</em> <em><a href="">submit your short film</a>.</em></p> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured posts:</h2> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> <div> <p>Topics: Creativity, Video &amp; Audio, Insights &amp; Inspiration, Media &amp; Entertainment, Creative Cloud, Brand</p> <p>Products: Creative Cloud,</p> </div> </div>

March 02, 2021 12:00 AM

Capgemini’s RDV design system for financial UX with Adobe XD

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-capgeminixdrdvdesignsystemfinancialux embed-internal-02"> <div> <h1 id="capgeminis-rdv-design-system-for-financial-ux-with-adobe-xd">Capgemini’s RDV design system for financial UX with Adobe XD</h1> <p>Learn how Capgemini combined Rapid Design &amp; Visualization with Adobe XD to create a customized design system for their fintech clients.</p> </div> <div> <img src="/hlx_850743689b665aaa682ba8e5d8590d4856f44867.jpeg" alt="Title slide: A comprehensive design system for Fintech using Adobe XD"> </div> <div> <p>By Kapil Joshi</p> <p>Posted on 03-02-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>In today’s fast-paced world, people are accessing (and indeed relying on) their digital devices more than ever before. At Capgemini, we keep this top of mind in all of our work — our constant endeavor is to provide seamless user experience and design solutions, always considering market trends, industry standards, and the scope of technology.</p> <p>When it comes to the work of designers, there is one fundamental challenge that the whole community faces these days — tighter deadlines with faster turnaround times. Add to that the constant challenge of preferences and personalized workflows — every business or organization we work with has their choice of tools.</p> <p>At Capgemini, we have chosen <a href="">Adobe XD</a> as our solution for meeting the growing demands facing designers, due to its diverse features and the way it caters to all our requirements. In fact, we’ve been using XD ever since its launch in 2016 (enjoying the advanced <a href="">features the team has been regularly adding</a> with every release). XD is a tool that caters to all parts of works — designing, prototyping, exporting visual assets, and UI specs — and this has given us a serious edge against the competition.</p> <div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-xd embed-internal-creativecloud"> <div><p><img src="/hlx_14c20520abab7f5a26508a03e5607d6f48395803.png" alt=""></p> <h3 id="adobe-xd">Adobe XD</h3> <p>Create and share designs for websites, mobile apps, voice interfaces, games, and more.</p> <p><a href="">Learn more</a></p></div> </div> <p>Nowhere has this been clearer than a recent project we completed in the notoriously tough-to-design-for financial services sector.</p> <h3 id="rapid-design-and-visualization-a-new-process-to-meet-fintech-client-requirements-faster">Rapid Design and Visualization: A new process to meet fintech client requirements faster</h3> <p>We were recently asked to help a global fintech leader increase its revenues. To do this, we created a <a href="">design system</a> in Adobe XD, and this coupled with our use of Rapid Design and Visualization (RDV) methodology allowed us to find success in a big way.</p> <p>Rapid Design and Visualization is a scientific requirement gathering and experience design methodology, which is based on <a href="">user-centered design principles</a>. It helps us capture and define user requirements in an agile fashion through collaborative design thinking workshops conducted with business stakeholders and our domain experts and technical architects.</p> <p><img src="/hlx_e4484f49db99f6160bfcf8421e2725794ab1b711.jpeg" alt="RDV methodology infographic"></p> <p><em>The RDV methodology enhances requirement gathering and experience design.</em></p> <p>We also create visual simulations without writing a single line of code, which helps save a lot of development effort as the usability can be assessed beforehand. In this financial services project, and other design projects we’ve worked on, RDV has enabled us to deliver multiple benefits for our clients:</p> <ul> <li><strong>Save time and cost:</strong> We help business users and technical teams capture requirements by creating visual simulations.</li> <li><strong>Re-define experiences:</strong> Our RDV experts help customers boost the user experience by improving journeys and usability.</li> <li><strong>Understand users:</strong> We conduct usability and A/B testing with RDV simulations to validate the requirements and journeys without a single line of code.</li> <li><strong>Facilitate consistency and iterate faster:</strong> We use a large and structured repository built to banking and insurance-industry standards.</li> </ul> <div class="embed embed-oembed embed-youtube"><div style="left: 0; width: 100%; height: 0; position: relative; padding-bottom: 56.25%;"><iframe src=";v=bS6QpHT7PyI&amp;kind=embed-youtube&amp;provider=youtube" style="border: 0; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; position: absolute;" allowfullscreen="" scrolling="no" allow="encrypted-media; accelerometer; clipboard-write; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" title="content from youtube" loading="lazy"></iframe></div></div> <p>In terms of business goals, we have an advantage as we can provide robust solutions and save time and effort that go into coding during the delivery of the project. Here’s how we did it for this specific financial services client.</p> <h3 id="a-robust-design-system-for-financial-services-clients">A robust design system for financial services clients</h3> <p>For this fintech giant, we built a one-stop white-label solution for their banking and wealth management clients. The design system, which took our team and Adobe XD working in collaboration, four months to create, includes a huge collection of reusable interaction patterns and UI elements. It’s robust, cohesive, and customizable, which saves a lot of development effort, and the solution is far more realistic and effective.</p> <p>The main motive was to ensure a quick turnaround time for creating low-fidelity prototypes. We wanted to build a foundational ecosystem that could help our designers meet their stringent deadlines and reduce the number of iterations, boosting their productivity. We also wanted the design system to be more in line with our changing customer needs and technical feasibility. Finally, we wanted to ensure our design system was not only relevant to our domain. We didn’t want it to have an isolated view but a holistic perspective.</p> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Block Embed</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><a href=""></a></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Designed for end users, the design system improves the user experience by reducing cognitive and motor load, which leads to faster decision making. We rapidly created visual simulations of multiple investor portfolios, including customized branding of all their banking and wealth management clients, for hundreds of screens in record time. These high-fidelity interactive simulations, or prototypes, not only gave a precise understanding of how actions will be performed on the digital platforms but also what the end product is going to look like. It ensured our customers could visualise the product or solution faster during the requirement gathering phase.</p> <p>An enhanced digital exercise of this kind helps our clients take their users through a visual experience of the end results and helps build confidence and a true partnership to achieve their common goal of delighting their customers.</p> <p>This is just one of the many success stories which the RDV methodology is driving to boost revenues across financial services organizations. It’s crucial to understand the client’s requirements to make this happen. Every customer wants a wow factor — and for us, working in Adobe XD has allowed us to create effective solutions that save time and promote faster output while meeting the requirements for our financial services clientele.</p> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured Posts:</h2> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> <div> <p>Topics: Insights &amp; Inspiration, Customer Stories, Financial Services, Creative Cloud,</p> <p>Products: XD,</p> </div> </div>

March 02, 2021 12:00 AM

Introducing the 2020 Sundance Ignite x Adobe Fellows

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-introducingthe2021sundanceignitexadobefellows embed-internal-02"> <div> <h1 id="introducing-the-2020-sundance-ignite-x-adobe-fellows">Introducing the 2020 Sundance Ignite x Adobe Fellows</h1> </div> <div> <img src="/hlx_62bbe79d98cee36bf976e0eb99b46e1932dd27a8.jpeg" alt="Collage of 10 different filmmakers selected for Sundance Ignite x Adobe Fellowship."> </div> <div> <p>By Adobe Communications Team</p> <p>Posted on 03-02-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>Creativity plays a crucial role in how we tell our stories, and it’s never been more important to elevate new voices, particularly in a medium like film. For the past six years, we’ve partnered with Sundance Institute with the common vision of inspiring creativity and bringing stories from the next generation of filmmakers to life. We are proud to be a founding partner of the Sundance Ignite x Adobe Fellowship program, empowering a new wave of emerging, diverse voices with the tools, mentorship and resources needed to tell their stories. Today we are thrilled to announce the 2020 Sundance Ignite x Adobe Fellows. Meet the 10 emerging filmmakers, selected from over 1,600 submissions around the world, who represent the next generation of storytellers.</p> <div class="embed embed-oembed embed-slideshare"><div style="left: 0; width: 100%; height: 0; position: relative; padding-bottom: 56.25%; padding-top: 38px;"><iframe src=";kind=embed-slideshare&amp;provider=slideshare" style="border: 0; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; position: absolute;" allowfullscreen="" scrolling="no" allow="encrypted-media" title="content from slideshare" loading="lazy"></iframe></div></div> <p>With support from Adobe, the Fellowship fosters the filmmakers both professionally and artistically. Each Fellow is matched with a Sundance Institute alumni mentor, is eligible for internships and program opportunities, and receives an artist grant to produce future work in addition to a complimentary subscription to Adobe Creative Cloud. Later in the summer, several of the Fellows’ winning short films were screened as part of <a href="">Celebration of Sundance Film Festival: London</a>.</p> <p>The future is bright for this new class of fellows. Fellows from previous cohorts – represented across 15 countries – have gone on to <a href="">produce more work</a> (98%), had their work commissioned, and have earned prestigious awards and <a href="">recognition</a> (60%). Beyond recognition, these filmmakers are bringing important topics to light and sharing diverse points of view. “We are so proud to partner with Sundance in the Sundance Ignite x Adobe program and look forward to working with the 2020 Fellows to help bring their stories, creativity and perspectives to the world,” said John Travis, Adobe’s VP Brand Marketing.</p> <p>Learn more about the <a href="">Sundance Ignite program</a> and get ready to <a href="">submit your short film</a> to the 2021 Sundance Ignite x Adobe Short Film Challenge. Through the challenge, we’ll identify 10 new Sundance Ignite x Adobe Fellows, who will have yearlong access to powerful mentorships and professional development opportunities. The challenge is open now through April 6.</p> <p>At Adobe, we believe creativity doesn’t just open doors—it opens worlds. Given the overwhelming number of submissions from young filmmakers around the globe, we’re expanding our support for those looking to hone their skills and explore filmmaking opportunities with 500 full-access scholarships to <a href="">Sundance Co//ab</a>—a platform providing emerging creators with online resources to create and share their stories.</p> <p>“Our mission is to enable creativity for all. We believe that everyone has a story to tell and that those stories deserve to be heard. When we elevate a broader and more diverse set of voices, we can create change within ourselves, our communities and the world,” said Travis.</p> <p>For more resources and opportunities to foster into your creativity, check out <a href="">other scholarships, grants and career development programs</a> from Adobe.</p> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured posts:</h2> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> <div> <p>Topics: Creativity, Responsibility, Diversity &amp; Inclusion,</p> <p>Products:</p> </div> </div>

March 02, 2021 12:00 AM

Celebrating Black Life, Love, and Legacy at Adobe

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-celebratingblacklifeloveandlegacy embed-internal-02"> <div> <h1 id="celebrating-black-life-love-and-legacy-at-adobe">Celebrating Black Life, Love, and Legacy at Adobe</h1> </div> <div> <img src="/hlx_a29180d9b7a661eebc91a9babc0242f7e66d4536.png" alt="Black History Month 2021, a celebration of Black life, love and legacy."> </div> <div> <p>By Karen Robinson</p> <p>Posted on 03-02-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>Black History Month (BHM) is a time for me to reflect, celebrate, and honor my ancestry, but this year BHM took on a greater significance as I’ve yearned for connections and community amidst the pandemic and on-going racial injustice incidents. My Adobe family has helped lift me up during this challenging time through the strong ties I have developed with my fellow members in Adobe’s Black Employee Network (BEN), and through engagement with leaders and colleagues to address how we can support the success of our Black community.</p> <p>This year, as the Executive Sponsor of BEN, I was proud to be a part of Adobe’s BHM events centered around the theme: <em>Celebrating Black Life, Love, and Legacy</em>. Our goal was to bring members of BEN and our many allies together to celebrate the talent, leadership, creativity, and stories from the Black community. We helped unite the global Adobe community through these programming highlights:</p> <ul> <li>An energizing kick-off event, with more than 1,000 employees across 11 countries, showcasing talented artists and musicians including virtual performances by artist <a href="">Kwame S. Brathwaite</a>, musical guests <a href="">Brandee Younger</a>, <a href="">Marcus Gilmore</a>, <a href="">Nicholas Payton</a>, and hip-hop performance group <a href="">1520 Arts</a><u>.</u></li> <li>A series of employee story spotlights with <a href="">Ronell Hugh</a>, <a href="">Bria Alexander</a>, and <a href="">TJ Rhodes</a><u>,</u> sharing their legacy at Adobe and beyond, and <a href="">Markeia Brox-Chester</a> and <a href="">Earnest Mack</a> sharing their personal journeys and triumphs.</li> <li>A fireside chat with Major General William J. Walker, the leader of the Washington, DC National Guard, who shared his experiences as a Black leader in both the military and law enforcement.</li> <li>A Black Women Creatives Panel, a food and cultural showcase, and a virtual marketplace to support Black-owned businesses.</li> <li>A celebration of <a href="">Black creativity</a> across the industry by elevating and amplifying diverse voices through multi-media content, grants and scholarships, and media partnerships.</li> <li>Donations to help the larger Black community through corporate and individual contributions to: <a href="">100 Black Men</a>, <a href="">Educational Video Center</a>, and <a href="">Greene Scholars Program</a>.</li> </ul> <p>Throughout the month I was humbled by the courage and vulnerability of my Black colleagues in telling their unique personal experiences. And as the daughter and granddaughter of servicemen, hearing from Major General William J. Walker not only brought nostalgia for my beloved father and grandfather, but also underscored the sincere appreciation I have to all those who serve.</p> <p>Our impactful BHM events and programs helped set the stage for ongoing investments and progress throughout the year. A key driver for this is Adobe’s Taking Action Initiative (TAI), which was established in 2020, in <a href="">response</a> to the death of George Floyd and other incidents of racial injustice. I am honored to be a co-leader of the initiative with the mission to accelerate the representation, development, and success of Adobe’s Black employees through five task forces: Community, Hiring &amp; Recruitment, Growth &amp; Advancement, Responsibility &amp; Advocacy, and Transparency &amp; Governance. I collaborate with task force participants – encompassing BEN members and organizational subject matter owners – to strengthen our commitment and initiate new programs. Given the level of focus and engagement from senior leadership, including our CEO and Chief People Officer, I am encouraged that TAI will make an impact on the success of our Black community and overall representation at the company.</p> <p>And while I know this is a marathon, where meaningful progress will take time, I’m motivated by recent TAI milestones including <a href="">establishing aspirational goals</a> relative to employee representation, increasing investments in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), and investing in growth and development through programs such as the McKinsey Black Leadership Academy.</p> <p>As BHM concludes I am invigorated by the commitment of BEN members and allies who united employees at a whole new level throughout BHM 2021 and by the ongoing efforts at Adobe to accelerate the success of Adobe’s Black employees while creating a change in the broader landscape of social justice.</p> <div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-adobeforall embed-internal-adobelife"> <div><p><img src="/hlx_c8c81ea35423b0511a921017439ef0a520f84d33.png" alt=""></p> <h3 id="adobe-for-all">Adobe For All</h3> <p>We believe that when people feel respected and included they can be more creative, innovative, and successful, which is why we are committed to investing in building a diverse and inclusive environment for our employees, customers, partners, and the tech industry as a whole.</p> <p><a href="">Learn more</a></p></div> </div> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured posts</h2> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> <div> <p>Topics: #AdobeForAll, Brand, Adobe Life, Adobe Culture, Diversity &amp; Inclusion, Celebrating the Black Community</p> <p>Products:</p> </div> </div>

March 02, 2021 12:00 AM

February 28, 2021

Manuel Rego: :focus-visible in WebKit - February 2021

Igalia WebKit

One month has passed since the previous report so it’s time for a status update.

As you probably already know, Igalia is working on the implementation of :focus-visible in WebKit, a project that is being sponsored by many people and organizations through the Open Prioriziatation campaing. We’ve reached 84% of the goal, thanks you all! 🎉 And if you haven’t contributed yet, you’re still in time to do it if you believe this work is important for you.

The main highlight for February is that initial work has started to land in WebKit, though some important bits are still under review.

Spec issues

There were some open discussions on the spec side regarding different topics, let’s review here the status of them:

  • :focus-visible on <select> element: After some discussion on the CSS Working Group (CSSWG) issue it was agreed to remove the <select> element from the tests and each browser could decide whether to match :focus-visible when it’s clicked, as there was not a clear agreement regarding how to interpret if it allows or not keybaord input.

    In any case Chromium has still a bug on elements that have a popup (like a <select>). When you click them they match :focus-visible, but they don’t show the focus indicator (because they want to avoid showing two focus indicators, one on the <select> and another one on the <option>). As it’s not showing a focus indicator, it shouldn’t match :focus-visible in that situation actually.

  • :focus-visible on script focus: The spec is not totally clear about when an element should match (or not) :focus-visible after script focus. There has been a nice proposal from Alice Boxhall and Brian Kardell on the CSSWG issue, but when we discussed this in the CSSWG it was decided that was not the proper forum for these discussions. This was because the CSSWG has defined that :focus-visible should match when the browser shows a focus indicator to the user, but it doesn’t care when it’s actually showed or not. That definition is very clear, and despite that each browser shows the focus indicator (or not) in different situations, the definition is still correct.

    Currently the list of heuristics on the spec are not normative, they’re just hints to the browsers about when to match :focus-visible (when to show a focus indicator). But I believe it’d be really nice to have interoperability here, so the people using this feature won’t find weird problems here and there. So the suggestion from the CSSWG was to discuss this in the HTML spec directly, proposing there a set of rules about when a browser should show a focus indicator to the user, those rules would be the current heuristics on the :focus-visible spec with some slight modifications to cover the corner cases that have been discussed. Hopefully we can reach an agreement between the different parties, and manage to define this properly on the HTML spec, so all the implementations can be interoperable on this regard.

    I believe we need to dig deeper in the specific case of script focus, as I’m not totally sure how some scenarios (e.g. blur() before focus() and things like that) should work. For that reason I worked on a set of tests trying to clarify the different situations when the browser should show or not a focus indicator. These need to be discussed with more people to see if we can reach an agreement and prepare some spec text for HTML.

  • :focus-visible and Shadow DOM: Another topic already explained in the previous report. My proposal to the CSSWG was to avoid matching :focus-visible on the ShadowRoot when some element in the Shadow Tree has the focus, in order to avoid having two focus indicators.

    There has been raised a concern, as this would allow to guess if an element is or not a ShadowRoot by focusing it via script and then checking if it matches or not :focus-visible (but ShadowRoot elements shouldn’t be observable). However that’s already possible in WebKit that currently uses :-webkit-direct-focus in the default User Agent style sheet, to avoid the double focus indicator in this case. In WebKit you can focus via script an element and check if it has or not an outline to determine if it’s a ShadowRoot.

    Anyway like in the previous case, this would be part of the heuristics so according to CSSWG’s suggestion, this should be discussed on the HTML spec directly.

Default User Agent style sheet

Early this month I landed a patch to start using :focus-visible in Chromium User Agent style sheet, this is included in version 90. 🚀 This means that from that version on you won’t see an outline when you click on a <div tabindex="0">, only when you focus it with the keyboard. Also the hack :focus:not(:focus-visible) won’t be needed anymore (actually it has been removed from the spec too).

In addition, Firefox is also using :focus-visible on their User Agent style sheet since version 87.

More about tests

During this month there has been still some extra work on the tests. While I was implementing things on WebKit I realized about some minor issues in the tests that have been fixed along the way.

I also found out some limitations of WebKit with regard to testdriver.js support for simulating keyboard inputs. Some of the :focus-visible tests use the method test_driver.send_keys() to send keys like Control or Enter. I added support for them on WebKit. Apart from that, I fixed how modifier keys are identified in WebKitGTK and WPE, as they were not following other browsers exactly (e.g. event.ctrlKey was not set on keydown event, only on keyup).

WebKit implementation

And the most important part, the actual WebKit implementation has been moving forward during this month. I managed to have a patch that passed all the tests, and split it a little bit in order to merge things upstream.

The first patch that just do the parsing of the new pseudo-class and adds a experimental flag has already landed.

Now a second patch is under review. It originally contained the whole implementation that passes all the tests, but due to some discussion on the script focus issues, that part has been removed. Anyway the review is ongoing and hopefully it’ll land soon and you could start testing it in the WebKit nightlies.

Some numbers

Like in the previous post, let’s again review the numbers of what has been done during in this project:

  • 20 PRs merged in WPT (7 in February).
  • 14 patches landed in WebKit (9 in February).
  • 7 patches landed in Chromium (3 in February).
  • 1 PR merged in Selectors spec (1 in February).
  • 1 PR merged in HTML spec (1 in February).

Next steps

First thing is to get the main patch landed in WebKit and verify that things are working as expected on the different platforms.

Another issue we need to solve is to reach an agreement on how script focus should work regarding :focus-visible, and then get that implemented in WebKit covering all the cases.

After that we could request to enable the feature by default in WebKit. Once that’s done, we could discuss the possibility to change the default User Agent style sheet to use :focus-visible too.

There are some interop work pending to do. A few things are failing on Firefox and we could try to help to fix them. Also some weird issues with <select> elements in Chromium that might need some love too. And depending on the ongoing spec discussions there might be some changes needed or not in the different browsers. Anyway, we might find the time or not to do this, let’s see how things evolve in the next weeks.

Big thanks to everyone that has contributed to this project, you’re all wonderful for letting us work on this. 🙏 Stay tuned for more updates in the future!

February 28, 2021 11:00 PM

February 25, 2021

Release Notes for Safari Technology Preview 121

Surfin’ Safari

Safari Technology Preview Release 121 is now available for download for macOS Big Sur and macOS Catalina. If you already have Safari Technology Preview installed, you can update in the Software Update pane of System Preferences on macOS.

This release covers WebKit revisions 271794-272845.

Web Inspector

  • Sources
    • Collapsed blackboxed call frames in the Call Stack section (r272371)


  • Added support for aspect-ratio on grid items (r272307)
  • Added support for logical variants of scroll-padding and scroll-margin (r272035)
  • Added support for color(a98-rgb ...), color(prophoto-rgb ...), color(rec2020 ...), color(xyz ...), hwb() as part of CSS Color 4 (r271992, r272125, r272123, r272311, r272344)
  • Added support for percentages when parsing color(srgb ...) and color(display-p3 ...) per-spec (r271866)
  • Changed sRGB to XYZ conversion matrix values to match values in the latest spec (r272498)
  • Fixed max-height percentages that are wrongly resolved for replaced grid items (r272309)
  • Fixed grid item to fill the grid area for stretch or normal self alignment (r272308)
  • Fixed animation of rotate or scale property to correctly account for static translate property (r272201)
  • Fixed font-stretch to apply to system-ui (r272073)
  • Fixed the nested grid container which has a replaced item with max-height incorrectly getting width(0px) (r272338, r272711)
  • Implemented scroll-snap-stop for scroll snapping (r272610)
  • Handled aspect-ratio: auto m/n for replaced elements (r272360)
  • Handled min-width: auto or min-height: auto for aspect-ratio (r272718)
  • Handled zero aspect-ratio width or height (r271948)
  • Made auto && <ratio> use content box-sizing (r272569)

GPU Process

  • Enabled audio capture in GPUProcess by default (r272735)
  • Enabled audio capture for speech recognition in GPUProcess (r272434)
  • Enabled GPU WebRTC codecs in GPUProcess by default on macOS (r272496)
  • Enabled video capture in GPUProcess by default on macOS (r272810)
  • Fixed <audio> not loading when the URL ends with .php causing some tests to time out (r272750)
  • Fixed implementation of WebGL power preference and discrete/internal GPU selection with ANGLE (r271880)


  • Added intermediate volume icon states between “mute” and “max” (r272375)
  • Changed media controls to show the total duration, only switching to time remaining when clicked (r272373)
  • Changed MediaStream-backed video elements to not compute the mediaType based on track muted states (r272583)
  • Connected MediaSession with MediaRemote and NowPlaying (r272445, r272589)
  • Fixed sound on YouTube after switching back to foreground (r272829)
  • Fixed playback of WebM/Opus generated from Chrome MediaRecorder (r272822)
  • Fixed Picture-in-Picture video pauses when scrolling on Twitter (r271870)
  • Updated media controls time scrubber styles (r272352, r272438)
  • Updated media controls to use new SF Symbols (r272339)


  • Fixed the return key binding for date inputs conflicting with pressing return to submit a form (r272495
  • Fixed selecting a date on datetime-local inputs unexpectedly adding second and millisecond fields (r272368)
  • Fixed rendering a pattern with an SVG image (r272549)
  • Forbid “|” in URL hosts (r271899)
  • Reduced the overhead of HTMLDocumentParser in innerHTML setter (r272622)


  • Added @ in Error#stack even if function name does not exist (r272139)
  • Added Atomics support for BigInt64Array and BigUint64Array behind a runtime flag (JSC_useSharedArrayBuffer=1) (r272341)
  • Adjusted properties order of host JS functions (r272099)
  • Changed Object.assign to throw for property creation on non-extensible target (r272411)
  • Handled milliseconds in Date’s timezone without floating point rounding (r272127)
  • Implemented BigInt64Array and BigUint64Array (r272170, r272215)
  • Implemented private methods behind flag (JSC_usePrivateMethods=1)(r272580)
  • Made JSON.parse faster by using table for fast string parsing (r272570)


  • Implemented WebAssembly.instantiateStreaming and WebAssembly.compileStreaming (r271993)
  • Implemented streaming compilation/instantiation for the Blob type (r272221)
  • Updated WebAssembly.Global to support Funcref and Externref (r272071, r272081, r272119)
  • Enabled Wasm bulk-memory and reference-types (r272074)


  • Exposed focusable elements even if the element or ancestor has aria-hidden=true (r272390)
  • Fixed long narrow tables to not be made into data tables unnecessarily (r272024)

Speech Recognition

  • Used the user media permission prompt for Speech Recognition (r272165)

February 25, 2021 09:26 PM

February 16, 2021

Combine PDF files with ease using Acrobat online tools

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-combinepdffileswitheaseusingacrobatonlinetools embed-internal-16"> <div> <h1 id="combine-pdf-files-with-ease-using-acrobat-online-tools">Combine PDF files with ease using Acrobat online tools</h1> <p>Take the hassle out of merging PDF files. With the Adobe Acrobat online Merge PDFs tool, it’s easy to combine PDFs with great results.</p> </div> <div> <img src="/hlx_c22612eb4acc0b72286baef2ef683b403c0441ef.jpeg" alt="Merge files into one PDF"> </div> <div> <p>By Adobe Document Cloud Team</p> <p>Posted on 02-16-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>Combining multiple PDFs into a single document can streamline your work in so many ways. But if you have ever tried it, you know that many methods commonly used to merge PDFs can be time consuming or produce less-than-ideal results. With Adobe Acrobat <a href="">online PDF tools</a>, combining PDFs into a single document is quick, easy and effective.</p> <div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-acrobat embed-internal-documentcloud"> <div><p><img src="/hlx_3e0e58654cbc37f0005f6ba2a61edb9314c3feaf.png" alt=""></p> <h3 id="adobe-acrobat">Adobe Acrobat</h3> <p>Stay connected to your team with simple workflows across desktop, mobile, and web — no matter where you’re working.</p> <p><a href="">Learn more</a></p></div> </div> <h3 id="take-the-hassle-out-of-merging-pdfs">Take the hassle out of merging PDFs</h3> <p>There are plenty of reasons to combine PDF files. Maybe you need to create an end-of-year report for your business by merging monthly reports, or maybe you need to combine various forms and sheets into a single cohesive package for your next meeting. If you are an educator, perhaps you would like to create a single set of reading materials for your students from multiple sources. Or maybe you would like an easy way to compile your favorite home recipes into a digital cookbook.</p> <p>With the new Acrobat <a href="">Merge PDFs</a> tool, you can complete any of these tasks in just a few moments. Simply open the tool in any browser, select the PDFs you want to combine, and Acrobat takes care of the rest. The Merge PDFs tool is just one of 19 powerful online PDF tools that Acrobat lets you try for free. And if you need to make your workday even more efficient, consider an Acrobat DC subscription. You can start a seven-day <a href="">free trial</a><a href=""> of Acrobat Pro DC</a> (then US$14.99/mo) to get unlimited access to all tools today.</p> <h3 id="easy-document-organizing-with-acrobat">Easy document organizing with Acrobat</h3> <p>Once you combine your PDFs, you will likely want to reorganize or edit the pages in the merged PDF. If you are already a subscriber or have started your free trial, you will have access to these Acrobat organization tools to finalize and polish your documents:</p> <ul> <li>The <a href="">Reorder PDF Pages</a> tool to move pages around within a PDF.</li> <li>The <a href="">Delete PDF Pages</a> tool to delete pages from a PDF.</li> <li>The <a href="">Rotate PDF Pages</a> tool to rotate individual pages right or left within a PDF</li> <li>The <a href="">Edit PDF</a> tool to add comments and annotations to a PDF.</li> </ul> <p>With help from Acrobat, you can make sure your documents present content just the way you want with quality you can trust. Discover all you can do with PDFs with a free trial of Acrobat DC and Acrobat’s online PDF tools today.</p> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured Posts:</h2> <ul> <li><a href=""><br> </a></li> <li><a href=""><br> </a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> <div> <p>Topics: Future of Work, Productivity, Document Cloud,</p> <p>Products: Document Cloud, Acrobat,</p> </div> </div>

February 16, 2021 12:00 AM

5 reasons why you shouldn’t miss Adobe Summit this year

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-5reasonswhyyoushouldntmissadobesummitthisyear embed-internal-16"> <div> <h1 id="5-reasons-why-you-shouldnt-miss-adobe-summit-this-year">5 reasons why you shouldn’t miss Adobe Summit this year</h1> <p>Why you shouldn’t miss Adobe Summit 2021, the world’s premiere conference for Experience Makers.</p> </div> <div> <img src="/hlx_a20b34305718bb4a8f4029ec50d8a0849a144426.jpeg" alt="Abstract art that is colorful on a white background. "> </div> <div> <p>By Adobe Communications Team</p> <p>Posted on 02-16-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>Adobe Summit 2021 registration is off to a great start. Set for April 27 — 29, the virtual event will bring together Experience Makers from some of the world’s most-recognized brands. No matter where you are in your career, you’ll be able to attend sessions that will leave you and your company future-proof. This is true regardless of your area of expertise — from content creation and personalization, to data and analytics.</p> <p><a href="">Register for free</a> to build the skills to create client experiences that inspire loyalty and drive growth.</p> <h3 id="explore-the-latest-customer-experience-trends">Explore the latest customer experience trends</h3> <p>This year’s Adobe Summit comes at a time of seismic shifts in the customer experience landscape. That’s why we’ve planned more than 250 sessions and training workshops that will highlight game-changing innovation in how brands deliver experiences at every stage of the customer journey.</p> <p>“Driving demand during COVID is top-of-mind for a lot of businesses,” says Alexandra Quick, a product marketing manager at Adobe. “That’s a subject we’re attacking head-on with a dedicated session.” Overall, participants can expect a “huge emphasis on digital marketing,” she adds. Included within this emphasis will be a deep dive into all the ways companies are using new technologies to advance their mobile commerce capabilities.</p> <p>“In the case of digital commerce, 2020 has been an incredible year for growth,” says Shannon Hane, senior product marketing manager for commerce at Adobe. This has been true on both the B2C and the B2B sides of industries. Adobe Summit 2021, she says, represents a unique opportunity to learn “how people are managing that growth and adapting their commerce capabilities and experiences to this new environment.”</p> <h3 id="get-inspired-by-top-brands-from-around-the-world">Get inspired by top brands from around the world</h3> <p>This year’s conference will represent one of the most industry-diverse entries in the Summit series to date, with speakers from every corner of the tech sector, as well as education, financial services, sports, retail, and more. Leaders from each industry will share the field notes they’ve amassed during the unprecedented upheaval of the last year. Among the subjects you can expect them to cover are the following:</p> <ul> <li><a href="">Adobe Experience Platform</a></li> <li>Analytics, Insights, and Activation</li> <li>B2B Marketing and ABM</li> <li>Campaign Management</li> <li>Collaborative Work Management</li> <li>Content Creation</li> <li>Developer Ecosystem</li> <li>Digital Commerce</li> <li>Digital Document Productivity</li> <li>Personalization</li> <li>Trends and Inspiration</li> </ul> <h3 id="discover-best-practices-and-new-techniques-and-products">Discover best practices and new techniques and products</h3> <p>Maybe you’re a B2B company looking to sell directly to consumers, or a retailer looking to recreate the physical showroom experience online. Whatever your challenge, you’re likely to find a case study at this year’s Adobe Summit that offers you a shortcut to success in building customer experience, from IT to creative — and everything in between.</p> <p>Finding and delighting customers takes more than the right strategy, however. It also requires the right tools, not to mention knowing how to use them. This April, you can expect to learn all about the latest in task-automation software, progressive web applications, 3D visualization, and more.</p> <p>Customers will also get a sneak peek at the exciting new features coming to Adobe products, including <a href="">Adobe Experience Manager</a> and <a href="">Marketo Engage</a>.</p> <p>“We’re going to showcase the innovations that we’re launching this year that give customers and brands the ability to make those experiences happen in a more agile, personalized way on every channel,” says product marketing manager Vebeka Guess.</p> <h3 id="connect-with-adobe-experts-and-your-peers-worldwide">Connect with Adobe experts and your peers worldwide</h3> <p>Opportunities for connecting with other Experience Makers can be hard to come by these days. That’s why networking activities are included with your Summit registration. Just because this year’s Summit is virtual, doesn’t mean it can’t be interactive.</p> <p>“It’s not just the content that draws people to Summit, but the ability to network and interact with experts at Adobe, and also your peers,” Vebeka says. “People come to Summit to learn from each other as well as from Adobe.”</p> <p>To this end, we’ll be launching Braindate, an interactive networking platform that will enable you to engage and interact with Summit attendees, expanding your learning and your network.</p> <h3 id="its-free-and-its-virtual">It’s free and it’s virtual</h3> <p>Adobe Summit 2021 is the most accessible conference ever for Experience Makers around the globe, and represents a unique opportunity for those who haven’t always been able to join in person. Reserve your spot now for the world’s premier conference on customer experience, where you’ll learn how to drive demand in a rapidly shifting marketplace, explore the latest technological and strategic trends, and draw inspiration from experts who are changing the world — one customer experience at a time.</p> <p><em>Have questions? Visit our official Adobe Summit 2021 <a href="">website</a>. You can also connect with us on social media using the hashtags #AdobeSummit, #MagentoImagine, or #MktgNation.</em></p> <div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-summitregistration embed-internal-summit"> <div><p><img src="/hlx_87e087ba6e238de864812fc9d69832a821c85f64.jpeg" alt=""></p> <h3 id="expand-your-genius-at-adobe-summit">Expand your genius at Adobe Summit</h3> <p>A free virtual event April 27-29, 2021</p> <p>Join us to expand your skills, engage with other Experience Makers, and be inspired to create exceptional experiences that drive business growth and customer loyalty.</p> <p><a href="">Register for free</a></p></div> </div> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured Posts:</h2> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> <div> <p>Topics: Adobe Summit, News, B2B, Experience Cloud,</p> <p>Products: Experience Manager, Marketo&nbsp;Engage,</p> </div> </div>

February 16, 2021 12:00 AM

Apply to be a 2021-22 Creative Resident

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-applytobea202122creativeresident embed-internal-16"> <div> <h1 id="apply-to-be-a-2021-22-creative-resident">Apply to be a 2021-22 Creative Resident</h1> </div> <div> <img src="/hlx_24468c73e708a3ce0b899b5ada4ca2c80d3d7af9.png" alt="Adobe Creative Residency on colorful background. "> </div> <div> <p>By Julia Tian</p> <p>Posted on 02-16-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>The Adobe Creative Residency is a year-long program that allows artists in the early stages of their creative careers to focus on building up their local creative communities and their own dream portfolios. Each Resident is supported with a full salary, health benefits, mentorship, access to Adobe software, speaking opportunities, and other project-specific support to make their vision a reality. The ideal candidate is passionate about building their community, skilled in their field, in the beginning stages of their creative career, and has the desire to make the Creative Residency their professional focus for one year.</p> <p>We are excited to announce that applications for the 2021 Adobe Creative Residency will be open February 16 9a.m. PST — March 14 11:59 p.m. PST. If you’re interested in growing your creative career, read on for application information, tips, and other resources to help you with your submission.</p> <p><img src="/hlx_5b2cda6c0bbcd804359c2df7cae93320eb3156cf.png" alt=""></p> <h3 id="application-information">Application information</h3> <p>Every year we look for a variety of ideas, people, and cultures representative of the diversity of Adobe’s creative community. This year, applications will be accepted from candidates living the United States.</p> <p>We are looking for future Residents who have a strong area of focus in one of these categories:</p> <ul> <li>Short-form online video</li> <li>Photography</li> <li>Illustration: <a href="">digital drawing</a> and painting</li> <li>Multi-disciplinary design: print and/or digital</li> <li>Experience/Interaction design using Adobe XD</li> </ul> <p>If your area of expertise isn’t listed above, we still welcome your application. See our <a href="">alumni page</a> to get a sense of the diversity of fields and styles we have supported in the past.</p> <p><img src="/hlx_92fe789c844c645667e8c8fd4a8e6bc975a0191a.png" alt=""></p> <h3 id="application-tips">Application tips</h3> <p><strong>Get started</strong></p> <ul> <li>Begin by reading through the Creative Residency <a href="">site</a>. Visit the How to Apply and FAQ pages for all the answers to your questions. Make sure you learn what the Residency is about and whether you are an eligible candidate.</li> <li>Bookmark this article and the links in it that you find helpful, and refer to them as you build your application.</li> <li>Review what previous residents submitted for their applications. Watch resident Anna Daviscourt’s <a href="">video of five tips for applying</a>.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Form your project vision</strong></p> <ul> <li>Take time to think through your project. What is your motivation? What will your project accomplish? What materials or support will you need? How much time will each portion of your project take? Give yourself time to prepare thoughtful answers to the application questions.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Complete the application form</strong></p> <ul> <li>Make a copy or download the application <a href="">template deck</a> as a PPT file and use it as a starting place for building out your project proposal. Make sure that you address all items and questions outlined in the template.</li> <li>Upload your proposal as a PDF into the application online.</li> </ul> <p><img src="/hlx_8ba459e9af97f383249346546a69228744413fe9.png" alt=""></p> <h3 id="application-resources">Application resources</h3> <p>This is your opportunity to use your creative strengths to communicate your style, voice, and process. Craft a project proposal layout, storyline, and design that exemplify your creative strengths.</p> <p>Refer to the past residents’ applications on our website. Notice how they used their artistic and organizational strengths to build a strong proposal. Remember that every submission is unique, so make sure yours reflects your style, brand, and voice.</p> <p>In addition to the project proposal, we also consider your previous creative work, flexibility in trying new things, past work experiences, and willingness to take on new challenges. You can <a href="">watch 2018 resident Aaron Bernstein’s application video here</a> to see how he uses stop motion animation, audio, and photography to communicate his project concept. This gave us a good feel for his level of skill, what style to expect from his project, and his ability to pitch his design concepts visually and succinctly.</p> <p><em>Good luck! We look forward to reviewing your application and hope to meet you soon.</em></p> <div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-creativeresidency embed-internal-creativecloud"> <div><p><img src="/hlx_020e0eec1e5c8b6ed4488341e9641abd6d547991.png" alt=""></p> <h3 id="adobe-creative-residency">Adobe Creative Residency</h3> <p>Create. Share. Activate. Empower. The Adobe Creative Residence and Community Fund supports the creative community with grants, tools, resources and guidance, giving creatives the opportunity to focus on building their dream portfolios.</p> <p><a href="">Learn more</a></p></div> </div> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured Posts:</h2> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> <div> <p><em>Topics: Creativity, Art,</em></p> <p><em>Products:</em></p> </div> </div>

February 16, 2021 12:00 AM

Spring call for content: Signs of renewal

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-spring2021adobestockcallforcontent embed-internal-16"> <div> <h1 id="spring-call-for-content-signs-of-renewal">Spring call for content: Signs of renewal</h1> <p>Now is the time for Adobe Stock, when clients are looking at new beginnings and looking for designs that capture the season of rebirth.</p> </div> <div> <p><img src="/hlx_38bda93ad67d54b32ab92f46080a7f1512dcf9d1.jpeg" alt=""></p> <p><em>Image source: Adobe Stock / <a href="">JimenaRoquero/Stocksy</a></em> <em>.</em></p> </div> <div> <p>By Brenda Milis</p> <p>Posted on 02-16-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>With subzero temperatures chilling much of the northern hemisphere, spring can seem ages away. But now’s the time at <a href="">Adobe Stock</a> when everyone is looking at new beginnings, planning their campaigns, and looking for images, designs, illustrations, and videos that capture the sparkling excitement of the season of rebirth.</p> <div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-stockspring2021 embed-internal-creativecloud"> <div><p><img src="/hlx_2278364dc79d9438b4563396fab411af0b9cd079.png" alt=""></p> <h3 id="spring-2021">Spring 2021</h3> <p>Highlights from Adobe Stock.</p> <p><a href="">Learn more</a></p></div> </div> <p>While you will find a need for classics like colorful eggs, gingham blankets, and bundles upon bundles of flowers (after an especially isolated and static winter), visual trends are urging us towards a spring that is richer, more colorful, and more dreamlike than before. Here are some of the key topics and themes for spring 2021 at Adobe Stock.</p> <p><img src="/hlx_8317b7a1d2d78214349889b027c226030a9553bb.jpeg" alt=""></p> <p><em>Image source: Adobe Stock / <a href="">Antonio Rodriguez</a>.</em></p> <h3 id="spring-2021s-exuberant-colors">Spring 2021’s exuberant colors</h3> <p>Traditionally, the arrival of spring brings cheerful pastels. The soft and creamy roses, lavenders, buttercups, and blue bells we see sprouting each year find a home in everything from Easter eggs and linen dresses to macaroons.</p> <p>This year there is a thirst for the most saturated and rich possibilities of these vernal mainstays. Perhaps it is a response to our dull, monochrome days behind a screen, but people are gravitating towards images, designs, and creations that convey vibrance and brightness. These rich colors play alongside the more muted pastel members of the same family, seen in the luscious Soft Start color palette.</p> <p><img src="/hlx_1a29b36241b9f52948c6a06f0c8842178aa74551.jpeg" alt=""></p> <p><em>Image source: Right: Adobe Stock/ <a href="">Jose Luis CARRASCOSA/Westend61</a> Left: Adobe Stock / <a href="">Thais Ramos Varela/Stocksy</a>.</em></p> <p><img src="/hlx_fe74885b5e51a2950e5db93bd7f30f3e758a1687.jpeg" alt=""></p> <p><em>Image source: Adobe Stock /</em> <a href="">Hayden Williams/Stocksy</a>.</p> <p><img src="/hlx_c73e9e473527a6861c9d94f8486bf2e36c764cb5.jpeg" alt=""></p> <p><em>Image source: Adobe Stock / <a href="">Soft Start color palette for spring on Adobe Color</a>.</em></p> <p>Desire for energetic and flashy colors this spring can be seen as part of the 2021 <a href="">Mood Boosting Color</a> trend. After a stressful and challenging 2020, artists and clients are letting a sense of optimism, pride, and exuberance glow through their color choices.</p> <p><img src="/hlx_842b85d2bbcded5ef7b638a8d079d2e3a5e0fc8f.jpeg" alt=""></p> <p><em>Image source: Adobe Stock / <a href="">JimenaRoquero/Stocksy</a></em> <em>.</em></p> <h3 id="expanding-the-family-bubble">Expanding the family bubble</h3> <p>One upside to our lifestyles in a time of quarantining, restricted travel, and social distancing, has been a renewed appreciation for the communities we live with every day. Roommates shared our birthdays, holidays, griefs, and joys with us.</p> <p>Building a bubble together helped us appreciate the sense of connection we get from shared spaces and activities. Stock images, videos, and designs will reflect our expanded and enriched sense of communal life.</p> <p><img src="/hlx_ad95255197dd87ae1f1782222825c5a4c4aaa461.jpeg" alt=""></p> <p><em>Image source: Left: Adobe Stock / <a href="">AudreyShtecinjo/Stocksy</a></em> <em>Right: Adobe Stock / <a href="">ADDICTIVE STOCK</a>.</em></p> <p>As we head into the warmer months, we expect a transition from solitary exercise to group activities and play. Creatives can turn to the nostalgic appeal of sports like roller-skating, badminton, cycling, and jump rope to offer us new ways to explore the same backyards and local parks. Meanwhile more adventurous outings like paddle boarding or surfing give people more opportunities to play together in a socially distant setting. The <a href="">Back in Action</a> stock collection showcases these shared ways of getting fresh air into our lungs.</p> <p>Families have also adapted to our new reality. By July 2020, 52 percent of young adults resided with a parent, up from 47 percent just four months earlier. Even before a global pandemic, a record 64 million Americans lived in multi-generational housing (a kind of family life that has been popular outside the West for centuries). The <a href="">Family Circle</a> collection at Adobe captures these larger, more diverse, and multigenerational families in a world of images and designs that celebrate the junctures between children and grandparents as they emerge into a new season.</p> <p><img src="/hlx_39d42d69d151828762ab74ead945d820985bfd19.jpeg" alt=""></p> <p><em>Image source: Adobe Stock / <a href="">Granger Wootz</a>.</em></p> <h3 id="the-delights-of-small-things">The delights of small things</h3> <p>In our screen-focused lifestyles and work environments, our day-to-day stimulation takes on a kind of visual monotony. Netflix following Zoom following social media. But the blooming of flowers, chirping of birds, and thawing of soil reminds us of the inexhaustible simple pleasures that surround us. As we emerge from our comfortable winter havens, spring offers a whole new dimension of experiences.</p> <p>There is a new kind of intensity to all kinds of sensory pleasures and delights this spring, engaging not only the eyes but the senses of sound, taste, smell, and touch as well. The artwork in the <a href="">Spring Awakening</a> collection evoke the scent of freshly picked herbs and lettuces and brewed tea, the tarty sweetness of young berries, and the bracing flutter of wind blowing through fields of grass.</p> <p>There is a focus on ways to experience nature closer to home and in simpler ways: planting a new patch of oregano in your garden or windowsill, or picking local wildflowers as opposed to flying across the world to a foreign land. And as we bring this embodied approach inside on the cool nights and blustery days, we bring with us a desire to nourish our senses with playful luxuries like baking, fort-building, and drawing.</p> <p><img src="/hlx_b594409ce775849a95259f76538435ee84fba53d.jpeg" alt=""></p> <p><em>Image source: Adobe Stock / <a href="">SUPERMAO</a>.</em></p> <h3 id="reveries-of-spring">Reveries of spring</h3> <p>We often describe spring as the season of rebirth and new life. This year, it is also the host to our most sumptuous dreams and fantasies. If our bodies are stuck in place, our minds are wandering to worlds that are sun-drenched, saturated, soft, and luxurious.</p> <p>The <a href="">Dreaming of Spring</a> Adobe Stock collection communicates a cottagecore-inflected fantasy — a sense of being in places unstuck from time and technology. People wander in endless fields of daisies, poppies, and dandelions wearing simple rustic fabrics. Chickens and sheep remind us of our connection to the rest of nature’s creatures. Friends and lovers picnic in lush and picturesque settings where time seems to have stopped. There is a freedom and creativity that these dreamlike themes allow, with images that employ double exposure, abstraction, and playfully surreal compositions.</p> <p><img src="/hlx_a996078543798100626f817f8f14b1a6d5b040c8.jpeg" alt=""></p> <p><em>Image source: Adobe Stock / <a href="">JovanaRikalo/Stocksy</a></em> <em>.</em></p> <p><em>Get inspired with our <a href="">Spring 2021 Collection gallery on Adobe Stock</a>. You can also<a href=""></a></em> <em><a href="">join our Discord channel</a> for stock artists and follow the #call-for-content channel. When you are ready,<a href=""></a></em> <em><a href="">submit your latest content to Adobe Stock</a>.</em></p> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured Posts:</h2> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> <div> <p>Topics: Creativity, Creative Inspiration &amp; Trends, Design, Illustration, Photography, Creative Cloud,</p> <p>Products: Creative Cloud, Stock,</p> </div> </div>

February 16, 2021 12:00 AM

Adobe Japan celebrates being named a Best Company to Work For

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-adobejapanbestcompanytoworkfor embed-internal-16"> <div> <h1 id="adobe-japan-celebrates-being-named-a-best-company-to-work-for">Adobe Japan celebrates being named a Best Company to Work For</h1> </div> <div> <img src="/hlx_80432212e698eb38c9a8c9687d95eed1594c8875.png" alt="For the fifth year in a row Adobe Japan is named a Best Company to Work For."> </div> <div> <p>By Adobe Life Team</p> <p>Posted on 02-16-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>For the fifth year in a row, Adobe Japan has been selected as one of the “Best Companies to Work For” by the Great Place to Work Institute, <a href=";amp;utm_medium=social&amp;amp;utm_campaign=tw200305?utm_source=twitter&amp;amp;utm_medium=social&amp;amp;utm_campaign=tw200515#main">coming in at no. 17 in the medium-size category</a> (100-999 employees), skyrocketing 23 spots from last year!</p> <p>The Best Companies to Work For ranking is held annually by the Great Place to Work Institute Japan (GPTW Japan), which scores an organization’s level of job satisfaction. In this year’s ranking, the focus of the list was around newly established and expanded benefit programs and the effectiveness of internal communications, especially in response to the coronavirus.</p> <p>Adobe has made the safety and health of its employees, as well as the health of their families and the people around them, its top priority. Since instructing employees to work from home since March 2020, the Adobe Japan team has introduced several new benefit programs. Here is a snapshot of what has made a big impact in the lives of our employees.</p> <h3 id="global-days-off">Global days-off</h3> <p>While many employees feel that working from home has been productive, there is no doubt that it is still a challenge, especially with trying to maintain their work life with their personal life. To address this issue, we have set up monthly global days-off for all our employees around the world. These global days-off allow <em>all</em> our employees to take a break together and focus on maintaining their wellbeing.</p> <h3 id="wellness-reimbursement">Wellness reimbursement</h3> <p>We know that having a healthy lifestyle is a top priority for our employees. To that end, we expanded our Wellness Reimbursement program, which covers the cost of wellbeing resources that help employees, and their families live healthy lives. Resources that we cover include gym equipment, virtual fitness classes, running shoes, and more.</p> <h3 id="work-from-home-reimbursement">Work from home reimbursement</h3> <p>In order to create a comfortable office setup at home, we have given employees a work from home reimbursement fund. This covers computer equipment, desks, chairs, and everything an employee needs to be successful at home. We even provide a separate internet reimbursement!</p> <h3 id="transparent-communication">Transparent communication</h3> <p>Outside of new benefits, we also know that employees want transparent communication. To that end, our leadership team gives frequent updates around the future of work, business goals, and more. Not only that, but monthly newsletters have also helped employees with wellbeing tips, and career development resources. For our Adobe Japan team, they regularly look forward to monthly virtual happy hours hosted by the Adobe Japan president, Jim McCready!</p> <h3 id="supporting-our-customers">Supporting our customers</h3> <p>Our Adobe Japan team is also especially dedicated to our customers. Which is why they’ve gone above and beyond to help them succeed. As the effects of the coronavirus continue, Adobe has introduced <a href="">several support programs</a> to ensure that our customers keep their businesses moving forward. This includes implementing new capabilities in our products to improve collaboration, hosting monthly virtual events that teach customers new ways to use our products, and more. We also established the <a href="">Adobe Creative Residency Community Fund</a> to help visual creators stay on track and achieve their dreams.</p> <p>Even in the wake of the coronavirus, Adobe Japan has made it an absolute priority to create a comfortable work from home environment for its employees. We are honored to receive this recognition and we couldn’t be prouder of our Adobe Japan team, who have been incredibly resilient during these challenging times. As business development manager Hiroto Ryuzaki sums it up, “I feel we have a culture that encourages people to think creatively and generate new ideas. We are then empowered to put those ideas into action to overcome challenges together.”</p> <div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-adobecareers embed-internal-adobelife"> <div><p><img src="/hlx_517674f7ac3435de41eb5f1470e52828fa149895.png" alt=""></p> <h3 id="adobe-careers">Adobe Careers</h3> <p>We believe in hiring the very best and are committed to creating exceptional work experiences for all. Great ideas can come from everywhere in the organization, and we know the next big idea could be yours. Let’s create experiences that matter.</p> <p><a href="">Explore opportunities</a></p></div> </div> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured posts:</h2> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> <div> <p>Topics: Adobe Life, Brand, Adobe Culture, Adobe Life - Asia</p> <p>Products:</p> </div> </div>

February 16, 2021 12:00 AM

February 11, 2021

Release Notes for Safari Technology Preview 120

Surfin’ Safari

Safari Technology Preview Release 120 is now available for download for macOS Big Sur and macOS Catalina. If you already have Safari Technology Preview installed, you can update in the Software Update pane of System Preferences on macOS.

This release covers WebKit revisions 271358-271794.

Web Inspector

  • Elements
    • RTL content inside elements is reversed and unreadable (r271458)
    • Font details sidebar panel
      • Improved line wrapping of table row titles (r271528)
      • Updated fractional variation axis ranges and default values to not be rounded (r271620)
      • Changed the “Historical Figures” section name to “Alternate Glyphs” (r271612)
  • Sources
    • Allowed breakpoint actions to be evaluated as a user gesture (r271373)
  • Console
    • Fixed bidi confusion when evaluation result has RTL text (r271726)


  • Changed slow-scrolling reasons to not propagate across frame boundaries (r271508)
  • Fixed scroll-chaining to trigger before the complete end of overscroll (r271730)
  • Fixed scroll-padding to affect paging operations (r271788)
  • Fixed scroll-snap points to be triggered during programmatic scroll (r271439)


  • Added relayout for grid items when definiteness changes (r271745)
  • Added support for lab(), lch(), and color(lab ...) colors (r271362)
  • Fixed incorrect scroll-snap-align parsing (r271480)
  • Handled shapeMargin becoming NaN (r271738)
  • Implemented logical border-radius (r271447)
  • Included aspect-ratio in percentage resolution (r271375)
  • Supported transferred min/max block size for aspect-ratio (r271554, r271648)
  • Optimized :hover and :active style invalidation for deep trees and descendant selectors (r271584)
  • Updated font when resolving letter-spacing: calc(...) values (r271688)
  • Reversed transform animation not applied alongside other transform animations (r271524)


  • Fixed super accesses on arrow functions defined as a class field (r271420)


  • Accelerated HTMLInputElement creation (r271672)
  • Changed to use the event loop to set the page title (r271514)
  • Changed a non-integer tabindex to match the element behavior as if the tabindex was omitted (r271523)
  • Disabled the context menu item and menu bar item to toggle automatic spelling correction where autocorrect="off" (r271459)
  • Fixed elements in a table getting incorrectly selected in JavaScript (r271635)
  • Included an origin identifier when writing promised image data to the drag pasteboard (r271685)


  • A video element needs to ignore the request to enter/exit fullscreen before the current fullscreen mode change is completed (r271377)
  • Allowed MediaStream and non MediaStream backed videos to play together (r271698)
  • Changed to prevent two pages in the same process to not play media stream backed video elements at the same time (r271670)
  • Fixed videos not playing on Facebook Stories (r271725)
  • Fixed picture-in-picture video subtitles that stop updating when Safari is backgrounded (r271737)
  • Fixed playback failure on (r271531)
  • Fixed Netflix controls to correctly fade out after entering fullscreen (r271656)
  • Fixed Facebook pausing video in picture-in-picture during scroll (r271470)
  • Introduced a MediaSessionGroupIdentifier (r271643)
  • Updated buttons of the media permission prompt (r271485)


  • Enabled WebRTC VP9 profile 0 by default (r271641)
  • Disabled verification timer in case of capture suspension (r271749)
  • Changed to notify capture state immediately on page close (r271640)

Web Audio

  • Addressed WebRTC live Opus audio stream stutters (r271575)


  • Implemented aria-braillelabel and aria-brailleroledescription (r271416)
  • Fixed AT-synthesized key events for common user actions such as increment or decrement (r271760, r271536)

Payment Request

  • Changed to use the first item in shippingOptions even when it’s not selected (r271735)
  • Fixed constructor to throw an error if the same payment method is provided more than once (r271734)
  • Fixed issue where the shippingOption of the PaymentResponse is null after updateWith (r271703)

Speech Recognition

  • Made SpeechRecognition permission error more informative (r271381)
  • Updated media state for active speech recognition as it uses audio capture (r271636)

Private Click Measurement

  • Enabled output logs by default, including to Web Inspector (r271473)

Bug fixes

  • Fixed “Blocked Plug-in” instead of showing a PDF (r271650)
  • Fixed combinations of nested perspective and transforms causing blurry layers on retina displays (r271388)
  • Fixed SVG reference filter chain with errors applying only some of the filters and producing incorrect output (r271785)
  • Removed explicit clamp to SRGB for Lab colors on CG platforms that support wide color (r271712)

February 11, 2021 06:00 PM

How Dell transformed customer experiences with Adobe Experience Cloud

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-howdelltransformedcustomerexperienceswithadobeexperiencecloud embed-internal-11"> <div> <h1 id="how-dell-transformed-customer-experiences-with-adobe-experience-cloud">How Dell transformed customer experiences with Adobe Experience Cloud</h1> </div> <div> <img src="/hlx_3e6d4bba8d596d47c2af04a9887d8af1f2277a02.jpeg" alt="Woman using a laptop"> </div> <div> <p>By Sunil Menon</p> <p>Posted on 02-11-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>For over 35 years, Dell technology has powered work, play and school for people all over the world. The company was founded in 1984 when Michael Dell was just a young college student customizing computer upgrades for classmates, and today is one of the leading technology providers in the world. Since early inception, Dell has been laser-focused on empowering their customers to achieve their goals, and that mission continues today.</p> <h3 id="customer-convenience-as-the-north-star">Customer convenience as the north star</h3> <p>At the heart of Dell’s marketing efforts is customer convenience. This focus is evident across multiple touchpoints with the customer. Take, for example,, the company’s site. The site has multiple sections tailored to simplify the search for the right technology. A new gamer who wants to play Fortnite may not know which computer or accessories they may need to meet the minimal requirements for gameplay. By navigating to the site’s gaming section, the customer can click on Fortnite as the game they want to play and be presented with options for the computers built for optimal performance.</p> <div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-experiencecloud embed-internal-experiencecloud"> <div><p><img src="/hlx_34720ecd0ad7c3510509b6fa3a9337f0696639ab.png" alt=""></p> <h3 id="adobe-experience-cloud">Adobe Experience Cloud</h3> <p>AI-driven customer experience applications for marketing, analytics, advertising, and commerce.</p> <p><a href="">Learn more</a></p></div> </div> <p>Additionally, Dell recently made updates to its site to make shopping from home a little easier for their customers. The site was enhanced with <a href="">interactive 360-degree 3D demos</a> of products and <a href="">augmented reality shopping widgets</a> (fueled by <a href="">Adobe Dynamic Media</a>) to give customers a better feel for the products they are purchasing from the convenience of their own homes.</p> <p>Understanding that the customer experience extends beyond just Dell’s web properties, the company turned to Adobe applications to create custom and engaging experiences across email, mobile, and even their direct mail campaigns.</p> <h3 id="a-tailored-approach-to-customer-experience">A tailored approach to customer experience</h3> <p>And to better tailor the emails customers receive, the company took their email marketing in-house with the help of <a href="">Adobe Campaign</a>, part of <a href="">Adobe Experience Cloud</a>. Through Adobe Campaign, Dell sends 1.6 billion emails to customers every year. The global transition to Adobe Campaign has enabled Dell to better understand how customers engage with their email and marketing campaigns. For example, the marketing team can now see how content promoting new product innovations is performing and make any necessary adjustments quickly to provide a better experience for their customers.</p> <p>Dell is also using <a href="">Adobe Target</a> to personalize the customer experience, as well as <a href="">Adobe Analytics</a> to measure the performance of their marketing campaigns.</p> <p>Customer-centricity truly is core to Dell’s DNA. Teams across the company are constantly testing new technologies and ways to improve the customer experience. After the successful rollout of Adobe Campaign for email marketing, Dell tested a new Adobe Campaign capability, SMS communications, just in time for the 2020 holiday season. Customers who opted into the pilot received text messages with offers on the hottest tech of the holiday season, making it easier for consumers to check off their gift lists.</p> <p>During the short pilot, Dell successfully delivered approximately 70,000 text messages to American customers and saw some great results. The pilot saw return on ad spend increase significantly and click rates for text message promotions performed 20 — 40 times higher than email. Dell also discovered that pilot participants were purchasing higher-value products. 48 percent of customers in the pilot who made a purchase bought premium products.</p> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Pull Quote</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><h2>“Adobe Campaign has given us the ability to getter a deeper understanding of how our marketing campaigns perform. The scalability and flexibility to make campaign changes quickly have paved the way for us to expand our marketing channels and test more cutting-edge technology like artificial intelligence to give our customers even more personalized experiences in real-time.”</h2><p><strong>Nishanth Yata,</strong> head of digital transformation, applications development at Dell</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Dell is looking forward to testing and implementing new technologies to deliver engaging, personalized experiences to power the lives of its customers. And the lessons learned from this past holiday season and future innovation will pave the way for many years of leadership in delivering exceptional digital experiences.</p> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured posts</h2> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> <div> <p>Topics: Digital Transformation, Customer Stories, High Tech, Experience Cloud,</p> <p>Products: Experience Cloud,</p> </div> </div>

February 11, 2021 12:00 AM

Ramy brings a fresh perspective through the lens of a first-generation Muslim-American

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-ramybringsafreshperspectivethroughthelensofafirstgenerationmuslimamerican embed-internal-11"> <div> <h1 id="ramy-brings-a-fresh-perspective-through-the-lens-of-a-first-generation-muslim-american">Ramy brings a fresh perspective through the lens of a first-generation Muslim-American</h1> <p>Ramy (award-nominated TV show) editor Joanna Naugle shares editing tips and tricks and walks through one of her favorite scenes on the hit show</p> </div> <div> <p><img src="/hlx_0904ef9380dde4a540a57ca54116bf78ef842fc9.jpeg" alt=""></p> <p><em>Photo from Hulu</em></p> </div> <div> <h2 id="by-adobe-communications-team">By Adobe Communications Team</h2> <p>Posted on 02-11-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>Nominated for multiple Emmy and Critics Choice Awards, the acclaimed series <em>Ramy</em> follows a first generation Egyptian-American man as he tackles heavy themes of self-discovery, faith, commitment, and compassion within and outside of his community. The show combines comedy and drama to take the audience on Ramy’s spiritual journey while he struggles between the values of his Muslim community and life as a millennial living in the moment.</p> <p><a href="">Senior Post</a> lead editor and co-owner Joanna Naugle breaks down a key scene for us in the behind-the-scenes video below, and discusses her work on <em>Ramy</em>, the transition to a remote workflow halfway through post-production, and balancing the unique tones to achieve the overall creative vision for the show’s second season.</p> <div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-premierepro embed-internal-creativecloud"> <div><p><img src="/hlx_6437eac3f9725128f1febd131fffb983cdd30b0b.png" alt="Inserting image..."></p> <h3 id="premiere-pro">Premiere Pro</h3> <p>Video editing that’s always a cut above.</p> <p><a href="">Learn more</a></p></div> </div> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Block Embed</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><a href=";">;</a></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h3 id="how-and-where-did-you-first-learn-to-edit">How and where did you first learn to edit?</h3> <p>I first experimented with editing by using in-camera techniques on my home video camera growing up and then using iMovie for school projects in high school. However, I really fell in love with editing while attending Tisch School of the Arts and taking a class where we shot on film and then cut it together on a Steenbeck. This was an incredibly formative experience for me, and literally cutting and taping together pieces of film made me realize how crucial editing was to the storytelling experience and made me want to specialize in this part of the filmmaking process. In 2012, I met Josh Senior and later became a co-owner of Senior Post. Everything I’ve cut at our post house, whether it be a feature film, television show, comedy special, music video, commercial or documentary, has been using <a href="">Adobe Premiere Pro</a>.</p> <h3 id="how-do-you-begin-a-projectset-up-your-workspace">How do you begin a project/set up your workspace?</h3> <p>I’m lucky that we had really talented and organized assistant editors on <em>Ramy</em>, and so by the time the projects came to me, all the footage was synced and organized by scene. There were always two cameras shooting (sometimes three) so the multi-cam function was crucial for keeping things organized. I also had the assistant editors create line by lines for each scene, putting each take for each line in a sequence so I could easily watch them all back-to-back and choose the best option for the scene. Those line by lines proved to be supremely helpful in the long run, especially when Ramy wanted to see line readings when we were working remotely. I could just export those sequences and send to him to review quickly.</p> <h3 id="tell-us-about-a-favorite-scene-or-moment-from-this-project-and-why-it-stands-out-to-you">Tell us about a favorite scene or moment from this project and why it stands out to you.</h3> <p>I have a couple of favorite moments from this season, but I had the most fun cutting episode #4, where Ramy and Zainab go to Prince Bin Khaled’s estate to ask for money. There were so many absurd moments (the breast milk, Mia Khalifa, the parrot) and we really tried to create a foreboding and bizarre atmosphere while they were at this strange location. The archery scene was especially fun to build out. I really wanted to emphasize the twist halfway through the scene, where we think Ramy has succeeded but then Bin Khaled turns the tables on him. We had to find that right balance between making sure the stakes felt real while still finding moments of humor throughout that scene. And then of course the episode ends with a surprising proposition from Sheikh Ali, and making that moment feel sincere and vulnerable was important for sticking the landing.</p> <h3 id="what-were-some-specific-post-production-challenges-you-faced-that-were-unique-to-your-project-how-did-you-go-about-solving-them">What were some specific post-production challenges you faced that were unique to your project? How did you go about solving them?</h3> <p>Going into quarantine halfway through editing the season was definitely challenging to say the least! But luckily our post producer, Josh Senior, and our post supervisor, Andrew Rowley, figured out a contingency plan quickly — we copied all the transcoded media onto hard drives and sent one home with each of our editors, assistant editors, and online editors. Then we were easily able to share projects remotely by simply reconnecting to the media on each of our drives. Anytime someone added a new asset, we had to all be sure we labeled it the same way and downloaded it to our respective hard drives. Another challenge was editing a show that has a huge component in a language I do not speak. Salah Anwar, our wonderful assistant editor, was hugely helpful with that. In Arabic-heavy scenes, he would go through in advance and create subtitles to give me and the other editor, Matthew Booras, context. He would also use markers to call out takes in Arabic that were especially funny, which allowed us to create the best possible versions of the scenes.</p> <h3 id="what-adobe-tools-did-you-use-on-this-project-and-why-did-you-choose-them">What Adobe tools did you use on this project and why did you choose them?</h3> <p>I used Premiere Pro to edit <em>Ramy</em>. The multi-cam function is incredibly helpful for our show since we’re shooting with multiple cameras. I was hesitant to use it at first on Season 1 because I was worried it would be too complicated, but it was really easy to set up. Without it, it would have made watching dailies two or three times as long. I also used markers way more often on this project than before, since we didn’t have the luxury of being in the same room as our assistant editors during project handoffs. These markers served as a shorthand for reminders or details about the project that we didn’t want to get lost in the shuffle. When sending projects back and forth, we also frequently used the command that allows you to export a sequence as its own Premiere Pro Project. This made the files much smaller and more streamlined, and required less relinking and uploading time between different users.</p> <p><img src="/hlx_6ff71fbbfae9beabcad080340d05107a58eca9c1.png" alt=""></p> <h3 id="what-do-you-like-about-premiere-pro-andor-any-of-the-other-tools-you-used">What do you like about Premiere Pro, and/or any of the other tools you used?</h3> <p>My favorite thing about Premiere Pro is that it’s so easy to get started. You can just add media and go, which is what makes it great for editing so many different types and sizes of projects. It’s also great to be able to integrate the other Adobe programs so easily, like <a href=";mv=search&amp;kw=test&amp;ef_id=Cj0KCQiA3smABhCjARIsAKtrg6KA37YhfcUHhxL8dFi4xXYsaWtiyrItbHFVjLRkLGg9LDo8FEuBFr4aAhmCEALw_wcB:G:s&amp;s_kwcid=AL!3085!3!469198201844!e!!g!!adobe%20after%20effects&amp;gclid=Cj0KCQiA3smABhCjARIsAKtrg6KA37YhfcUHhxL8dFi4xXYsaWtiyrItbHFVjLRkLGg9LDo8FEuBFr4aAhmCEALw_wcB">After Effects</a> and <a href="">Photoshop</a>. Having files auto-update across the programs saves a lot of time and energy. I’m also a huge fan of the new title tool; it keeps the project so much cleaner to not have individual files in bins for each corresponding piece of text.</p> <h3 id="whats-your-favorite-hidden-gem-workflow-hack-in-adobe-creative-cloud">What’s your favorite hidden gem/ workflow hack in Adobe Creative Cloud?</h3> <p>One of my favorite features of Premiere Pro is the ability to customize label colors. I’m an incredibly visual person and so while working on episodes, I label each scene a different color. This makes it super easy to know exactly where one scene starts and the next finishes, and I can easily zoom out and see how much of the run time each scene takes up proportionally. If my sequence doesn’t look clean and organized, I can’t concentrate on making creative choices so keeping things color coded and simplified is key for my productivity. Also changing the “Nudge Selection Up” and “Nudge Selection Down” commands to one of my key shortcuts totally changed my workflow. I use that command constantly and only needing one keystroke makes me much more efficient as an editor.</p> <h3 id="who-is-your-creative-inspiration-and-why">Who is your creative inspiration and why?</h3> <p>Thelma Schoonmaker is definitely an editing hero of mine. I remember seeing her win the Oscar for editing “The Departed” and it was just as I was getting ready to attend film school and I thought, “maybe I could be her one day.” She made my wildest dreams seem possible and I really admire the longtime collaboration between her and Martin Scorsese. The Coen Brothers are also a huge creative inspiration for me; they are so skilled at seamlessly shifting between genres within their films to create a totally unique experience. “Fargo” is my all-time favorite film, and I’m definitely drawn to similar projects that blur the line between comedy and drama, just like “Ramy” does.</p> <h3 id="whats-the-toughest-thing-youve-had-to-face-in-your-career-and-how-did-you-overcome-it-what-advice-do-you-have-for-aspiring-filmmakers-or-content-creators">What’s the toughest thing you’ve had to face in your career and how did you overcome it? What advice do you have for aspiring filmmakers or content creators?</h3> <p>I’ve had some amazing creative collaborations in my career and some that didn’t pan out the way I had hoped, and when that happens it can be easy to beat yourself up or obsess over what you did wrong during the process. It took some time, but I’ve learned not to take these things personally — there will be people who you communicate really well with and you’ll feel like equal creative partners working and creating together. And there will be other people who are incredibly talented and creative, but they just don’t know how to convey their ideas or engage with you as an editor in order to accomplish their vision. There has to be a level of trust between the director and editor in order for that collaboration to be most effective and fruitful. So, the most important thing you can do starting out as an editor is to work with as many different directors and collaborators as possible, so you can find the people who are the best creative match for you and build that trust with them while working together. I’m lucky to count Ramy as one of those successful collaborators for me, and he strikes a great balance between having a singular and focused creative vision while still leaving room for input and suggestions from me and the rest of the team.</p> <h3 id="share-a-photo-of-where-you-work">Share a photo of where you work.</h3> <p><img src="/hlx_80a91b238c9fc0fb73066349e440c2c8326b1c4c.jpeg" alt=""></p> <h3 id="whats-your-favorite-thing-about-your-workspace-and-why">What’s your favorite thing about your workspace and why?</h3> <p>It’s been an adjustment working from home the past few months but the best part is sharing the space with my fiancé, Michael Litwak. He is a writer/director and so it’s really great to be able to bounce ideas off each other whenever we’re at a creative roadblock. I’ve also gotten very used to working in sweatpants and slippers… it’s going to be tough going back to wearing jeans and real shoes every day.</p> <p><em>Ramy</em> is available to stream on Hulu.</p> <div class="embed embed-oembed embed-youtube"><div style="left: 0; width: 100%; height: 0; position: relative; padding-bottom: 56.25%;"><iframe src=";v=mPDQ5bUsZxM&amp;kind=embed-youtube&amp;provider=youtube" style="border: 0; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; position: absolute;" allowfullscreen="" scrolling="no" allow="encrypted-media; accelerometer; clipboard-write; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" title="content from youtube" loading="lazy"></iframe></div></div> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured posts</h2> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> <div> <p>Topics: Media &amp; Entertainment, News, Creative Cloud,</p> <p>Products: Creative Cloud, Premiere Pro,</p> </div> </div>

February 11, 2021 12:00 AM

Introducing your 2021 Marketo Engage Champions!

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-introducingyour2021marketoengagechampions embed-internal-11"> <div> <h1 id="introducing-your-2021-marketo-engage-champions">Introducing your 2021 Marketo Engage Champions!</h1> <p>We are proud to announce the 10th anniversary class of our most elite group of Marketo Engage advocates, the 2021 Marketo Engage Champions!</p> </div> <div> <img src="/hlx_964d1da5191ed7e94ca8bc47380e1d700f3bf296.png" alt="Colorful abstract art"> </div> <div> <p>By Jess Darnell</p> <p>Posted on 02-11-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>Today we are thrilled to announce the 2021 Marketo Engage Champions! This year marks the 10th anniversary of the Marketo Engage Champion program, which recognizes and celebrates the most passionate, knowledgeable Marketo Engage users across the globe.</p> <p>Since its inception ten years ago, the Marketo Engage Champion program has grown in prestige and has become a career catalyst for many Marketo Engage users.</p> <p>Each member is a Marketo Engage expert and avid Marketo Engage ambassador, focused on actively sharing their knowledge and expertise with fellow users. They have demonstrated outstanding leadership and are loyal advocates who consistently go above and beyond to support others on their journey with Marketo Engage.</p> <p>This group will embark on a year filled with career development, knowledge sharing, exclusive speaking opportunities, connection with fellow Marketo Engage users, and opportunities to share feedback with Adobe product teams to inform the Marketo Engage product roadmap.</p> <p>Here’s how a few Marketo Engage Champions describe their experience with the program:</p> <p><em>“The Champion program has grown my career by leaps and bounds. I have met the smartest, friendliest and most ambitious group of like-minded people in this program and I am forever grateful for the opportunities (and laughs) it has given me!” Chelsea Kiko, Marketing Automation Manager, McGraw-Hill</em></p> <p><em>“Being a Marketo Engage Champion has accelerated my career and gave me access to the top talent in marketing operations” Christina Zuniga, Sr. Marketing Automation Manager, Databricks</em></p> <p>Please join us in congratulating Adobe’s 2021 Marketo Engage Champions!</p> <p>Get to know our 2021 Marketo Engage Champions by checking out their profiles below:</p> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Ajay Sarpal</a>, Founder and CEO, Unicorn Martech DBA Ajay Sarpal</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Alex Greger</a>, Marketing Automation Manager, Skillsoft</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Alexandra Lane</a>, Manager, Marketing Automation, John Hancock</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Amanda Thomas</a>, Marketing Technology Consultant, Etumos</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Amit Jain,</a> Marketo IT Specialist - Sales and MarTech, Atlassian</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Amy Goldfine,</a> Senior Marketing Operations Manager, Iterable</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Andy Caron</a>, Head of Martech Consulting, Revenue Pulse</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Beth Massura,</a> Associate Platform Operations Consultant, Etumos</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Brandon Benjamin</a>, Manager, Marketing Technology, PagerDuty</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Britney Young</a>, Marketing Operations Specialist, McKesson</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Brooke Bartos</a>, Senior Manager, Marketing Operations, Walker Sands</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Carrie Chandler</a>, Digital Marketing Manager, Genworth Mortgage Insurance</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Chelsea Kiko</a>, Marketing Operations Manager, McGraw Hill</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Chiara Riga</a>, Marketing Operations Manager, Digital Shadows</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Chloe Pott</a>, Senior Manager, Marketing Operations &amp; Analytics, Sqreen</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Chris Saporito</a>, Sr. Manager, Marketing Operations, Paycor</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Chris Wilcox</a>, Director, Digital Marketing, Hartford Funds</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Chris Willis</a>, Global Marketing Operations Manager, Integration Marketing Strategies, Trimble</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><img src="/hlx_65ad0c5baeb29e559c4422c85c53832dd2221c38.jpeg" alt=""><a href="">Christina Zuniga</a>, Senior Marketing Operations Manager, Databricks</td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Corey Bayless</a>, Marketing Automation Program Manager II, Amazon Web Services</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Courtney Tobe</a>, Manager of Marketing Operations, AvidXchange Inc.</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Diederik Martens</a>, Chief Marketing Technologist, Chapman Bright</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Enrico de Leon,</a> Senior Associate, Digital Marketing, Altisource</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Grace Brebner</a>, Senior Manager of Client Services, Digital Pi</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Greg Ah Sue</a>, Director of Marketing Operations, Blip</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Helen Abramova</a>, Marketing Technology Lead, Verizon</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">JD Nelson</a>, Senior Manager, Marketing Operations, Vimeo</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Jenn DiMaria</a>, Director of Client Services, Digital Pi</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Jenny Robertson</a>, Senior Vice President, Technology Solutions &amp; Architecture, ANNUITAS</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Jessica Kao</a>, Director of Client Strategy, Digital Pi</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">John Grundy</a>, Marketing Program Manager,</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Josh Pickles</a>, Customer Experience Lead, Crimson Global Academy</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Julz James</a>, Sr. Manager, Marketing Operations, Blue Prism</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Kimberly Galitz</a>, Marketing Operations Manager, Bandwidth</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Kyle McCormick</a>, Senior Manager, Marketing Technology and Operations, Palo Alto Networks</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Lauren McCormack</a>, Senior Manager, Digital and Marketing Automation, Neo4J</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Makiko Hultz</a>, Sr. Digital Marketing Supervisor, Honeywell</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Maxwell Maurier,</a> Director, Marketing Operations &amp; Analytics, Druva</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Megan Crone</a>, Marketing Automation Administrator, Insight</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Melissa Day</a>, Global Digital Marketing Leader, Chemours</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Michael Tucker</a>, Marketing Technology Consultant/Owner, The Conversion Store</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Moni Oloyede</a>, Sr. Marketing Operations Manager, Fidelis Cybersecurity</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Natalie Kremer</a>, Marketing Automation Manager, McGraw Hill</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Oceane Li</a>, Marketing Operations Manager II, Google</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Phillip Wild</a>, Global Lead, Marketing Technology, G Adventures</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Shayna Wilczynski,</a> Director of Revenue Operations, JRNI</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Taishi Yamada</a>, Director, Enterprise Marketing, Softbank</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Veronica Lazarovici</a>, Marketing Operations Consultant, Hotelbeds Holdings</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Vladislav Vagner</a>, Sr. Marketing Automation Admin, Mitel</p></td> <td><p></p><img src="" alt=""><p></p><p><a href="">Warren Stokes</a>, Lead Consultant, Kniva Ltd</p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-marketoengage embed-internal-experiencecloud"> <div><p><img src="/hlx_4e9ab0dbcb1130b4a6f3d5bd44dcb7213fc322ee.png" alt=""></p> <h3 id="marketo-engage">Marketo Engage</h3> <p>Radically transform your customer experience management by aligning sales and marketing at every touchpoint.</p> <p><a href="">Learn more</a></p></div> </div> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured Posts:</h2> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> <div> <p>Topics: Future of Work, News, Digital Transformation, Commerce, Experience Cloud,</p> <p>Products: Marketo&nbsp;Engage,</p> </div> </div>

February 11, 2021 12:00 AM

Scaling fantastic user experiences, over drinks

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-scalingfantasticuserexperiencesoverdrinks embed-internal-11"> <div> <h1 id="scaling-fantastic-user-experiences-over-drinks">Scaling fantastic user experiences, over drinks</h1> <p>Omnichannel at ZX Venture’s design system utilizes Adobe XD and Adobe Creative Cloud to maintain quality of user experience across brands, continents, languages, and cultures.</p> </div> <div> <img src="/hlx_c585f1f8e349b4f7032f584a3146dfb4b99ee813.png" alt=""> </div> <div> <p>By Courtney Spencer</p> <p>Posted on 02-11-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>There’s always been a universal, enjoyable aspect to getting together with your friends and family over beverages. People talk, build relationships, and enjoy the company of others. It’s one of the most time-honored ways of bringing people together.</p> <p>As the global head of design, omnichannel at ZX Ventures, DTC Group inside AB-InBev, I rely on design and user experiences to translate this camaraderie to our digital experiences. Our venture consists of startups that sell beer straight to customers — for example subscription websites, traditional e-commerce websites, or courier apps. It’s an exciting world to be a part of.</p> <p>As part of the omnichannel team, my role encompasses product and marketing design, product and marketing, overseeing the numerous ventures and their design teams. I support and advise our portfolio companies from design operations as well as personally designing for them. Supporting our businesses and bringing designs to life would be impossible without a great framework and toolset in place.</p> <p>For us, the framework is a design system and templated approach to using it, and the toolset is <a href="">Adobe XD</a> and <a href="">Adobe Creative Cloud</a>. With this approach, we’ve been able to effectively scale our work and maintain quality and consistency of experience across dozens of different brands — working across continents, languages, and cultures.</p> <div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-xd embed-internal-creativecloud"> <div><p><img src="/hlx_14c20520abab7f5a26508a03e5607d6f48395803.png" alt=""></p> <h3 id="adobe-xd">Adobe XD</h3> <p>Create and share designs for websites, mobile apps, voice interfaces, games, and more.</p> <p><a href="">Learn more</a></p></div> </div> <h3 id="using-design-systems-to-manage-dozens-of-brands">Using design systems to manage dozens of brands</h3> <p>When overseeing a portfolio of early stage businesses, it is important to prioritize more than 20 brands — we’re essentially popping in and out of our various businesses at any given time and solving problems and helping however we can. Our job is to ensure that each brand stays true to its vision and what makes it special, while also staying consistent with the overall branding and quality standards of ZX Ventures and Anheuser-Busch.</p> <p>We have a master ZX Ventures design system, which we use as a template for each brand we invest in — this template provides us with a brand foundation when building digital experiences, a way to avoid any redundancies (why build a new button when you have a great one already?). Additionally, having this template and sharing it with each brand gives them and us a chance to build on top of our central vision to create something truly unique. We achieve this personalization in two key ways.</p> <p>First, we use data from existing ventures to inform how our design system visually communicates the value proposition of a specific brand; this will then be constant in each single application for that brand, going forward. We then identify any variables — like colors, logos, and copy — that we curate for a specific culture market or business type. For instance, while copy changes from language to language, the tone and general layout remains the same; while the logo template is constant across different businesses, the brand name will differ.</p> <p>Second, we rely on iterative testing to make sure we get it right. Every time we bring a product or design system to market, we rely on A/B testing to determine what’s working and what’s not. We map out our certainties, doubts, and assumptions — then, we establish which design decisions we made on data and which ones we made on assumptions. For example, we recently tested lifestyle or product imagery to see what content performs better and how that can inform other design decisions made on assumptions. You could say we are slightly obsessed with testing.</p> <p>We’re also addressing the inevitable challenges in language created by working with so many diverse teams. At the moment, we design in English and then get either a product manager or local designer to translate into the local language, which takes time and requires a lot of testing after the fact. Since having more designers who speak Spanish or Portuguese is vital, we’re hiring more designers in Mexico and other Latin American countries.</p> <p>Simultaneously, we’re establishing standards for linguistics. For instance, we want to enshrine our tone of voice for UX and the consistency of copy for calls to action.</p> <h3 id="a-ux-designer-for-other-ux-designers">A UX designer, for other UX designers</h3> <p>Our work with our various ventures and their individual designers takes a very bottom-up approach — we are here to be the problem solvers and support. Designers and founders come to us with their biggest challenges, and we solve them collaboratively. Together, we identify patterns in their problems and then find a solution for those problems.</p> <p>To do this, we follow a three-step process:</p> <ul> <li>Evaluate the symptoms</li> <li>Identify the root cause of the problem</li> <li>Build out a program to address the design problem</li> </ul> <p>For example, in one case, we determined that one of our brand’s designers was spending too much time manually choosing their primary colors and fonts since nothing was standardized. This is a case where the solution was to use our templated design system, creating a custom design system for this brand, to maximize efficiency. For another brand, however, we created simple UI kits for already existing experiences, allowing us to update some of the user interfaces on their websites.</p> <p>Overall, our design systems have led to massive time savings and increased productivity for our individual designers. For example, one designer was able to reduce her design time by 50 percent and onboard her intern in just one hour.</p> <h3 id="leaning-on-adobe-xd-to-do-the-heavy-lifting">Leaning on Adobe XD to do the heavy lifting</h3> <p>Working with many different designers, scattered in teams across different countries (many of whom are now working from home), we need a solid tool we can count on that would help us realize our vision of a central design team, ensuring brand consistency while also empowering individual brands to be unique. For us, that is <a href="">Adobe XD</a>.</p> <p>For our team, the biggest benefit is the many collaboration capabilities in XD. Since we’re dealing with different time zones and different parts of teams, it’s crucial for us to clearly and quickly see what we’re all working on. To that end, using <a href="">Creative Cloud Libraries</a> has been a huge help, too — we’re always going from <a href="">Illustrator</a> to <a href="">Photoshop</a> to XD in our workflows.</p> <p>For example, on the Creative Cloud library panel, when I need to copy our master design system and create a new one, I can do that in just one click. In my new design system, I can then change things like colors for the links. By changing these colors in the assets panel, XD applies the change to each instance of it in the design document, saving us massive amounts of time.</p> <h3 id="uniting-people-through-great-digital-experiences">Uniting people through great digital experiences</h3> <p>With our work at ZX Ventures, I believe we are bringing people together and helping our designers do great work, wherever in the world they are or whichever ventures they’re working at. The cool thing about my role is I get to support other designers — as they improve their skill set, it helps our businesses grow as well. I find this super empowering.</p> <p>Ultimately, I believe this results in better digital experiences for our customers, too — like great drinks at a party, great digital experiences go a long way in connecting people, especially when we can’t all be together in person.</p> <p><img src="/hlx_6af4bb7ea720be92ece3d92523496a725829fd04.jpeg" alt="Photograph of 4 deisgners at a table. "></p> <p><em>ZX Ventures &amp; Zé Delivery Designers in São Paulo, Brazil. Left to Right: Diego Carrion, Fernanda Magalhaes, and Otávio Sueitt.</em></p> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured Posts:</h2> <ul> <li><a href=""><br> </a></li> <li><a href=""><br> </a></li> <li><a href=";mv=social#gs.sn73sv">;mv=social#gs.sn73sv</a></li> </ul> </div> <div> <p>Topics: Digital Transformation, Insights &amp; Inspiration, Customer Stories, Content Management, Creative Cloud, no-interlinks</p> <p>Products: Creative Cloud, Illustrator, Photoshop, XD,</p> </div> </div>

February 11, 2021 12:00 AM

Adobe employees from around the world welcome the Year of the Ox

Adobe Web Platform

<div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-employeeswelcomeyearoftheox embed-internal-11"> <div> <h1 id="adobe-employees-from-around-the-world-welcome-the-year-of-the-ox">Adobe employees from around the world welcome the Year of the Ox</h1> </div> <div> <img src="/hlx_ce7ae3791229a7a19c82682466b9bc075843f10b.png" alt="Lunar New Year decorations in Singapore."> </div> <div> <p>By Celest Lim</p> <p>Posted on 02-11-2021</p> </div> <div> <p>The <a href="">Lunar New Year</a> (LNY) — also known as Chinese New Year or Spring Festival — marks the first new moon of the lunisolar calendars that are traditionally used in many east Asian countries, including China, Singapore, Korea, and Vietnam. It is one of the most significant and vibrant celebrations around the world.</p> <p>With Adobe’s upcoming Global Day Off falling on the first day of LNY, employees around the world shared their own traditions and how they’ll be celebrating this year.</p> <h3 id="year-of-the-ox-and-festive-decorations">Year of the Ox and Festive Decorations</h3> <p>February 12 marks the beginning of the Year of the Ox, the second animal on the Chinese zodiac, bringing a renewed source of strength and resilience to the year ahead.</p> <table> <thead> <tr> <th>Image 50</th> <th>Image 50</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><img src="/hlx_d778a2f75176993af3274e2437868bf444af4fb3.png" alt="Lunar New Year decorations in Singapore, showing the Year of the Ox."></td> <td><img src="/hlx_03f8f7ab479b9d8a98cc01a75c66b66772b65c88.png" alt="Food stand in Singapore." title="Inserting image..."></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>“Every LNY, I would stroll down Chinatown to enjoy the massive lantern displays. This year even with the beautiful Ox displays, the streets were quieter and stalls empty. I’m missing the Adobe Lion Dance and big loud cheering during Yusheng — a uniquely Singaporean tossing of fresh vegetables and raw fish for good luck.”</p> <p><em><strong>— Vincent Chia, DME enterprise account executive, Singapore</strong></em></p> <p><img src="/hlx_61a6cd38e499eb7f16bad601c06b37ad53af9a11.png" alt="The ‘Chun Lian’ (Spring Couplet), also known as 'a pair of antithetical phrases,' is a special form of literature in China."></p> <p>“The ‘Chun Lian’ (Spring Couplet), also known as ‘a pair of antithetical phrases,’ is a special form of literature in China. Often written with black or gold ink on red paper, these couplets are traditionally pasted on the sides of the front door and above the door frame as LNY decorations and wishes for happiness and a good year ahead.”</p> <p><em><strong>— Enno Zhong, senior solutions consultant, Guangzhou, China</strong></em></p> <h3 id="auspicious-tunes-red-envelopes-and-family-gatherings">Auspicious Tunes, Red Envelopes, and Family Gatherings</h3> <div class="embed embed-oembed embed-youtube"><div style="left: 0; width: 100%; height: 0; position: relative; padding-bottom: 56.25%;"><iframe src=";v=34nU-CZvz7c&amp;feature=emb_title&amp;kind=embed-youtube&amp;provider=youtube" style="border: 0; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; position: absolute;" allowfullscreen="" scrolling="no" allow="encrypted-media; accelerometer; clipboard-write; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" title="content from youtube" loading="lazy"></iframe></div></div> <p>“Nothing quite like the blasting of festive tunes at the malls and supermarkets to remind us that LNY is ‘round the corner! Here’s us singing one of our favorites called “He Xin Nian (贺新年)” — a song wishing all a happy new year.”</p> <p><em><strong>— Angela Lee, JAPAC lifecycle marketing specialist &amp; Joyce Neo, APAC marketing manager, Singapore</strong></em></p> <div class="embed embed-oembed embed-youtube"><div style="left: 0; width: 100%; height: 0; position: relative; padding-bottom: 56.25%;"><iframe src=";v=owCUzmyFo_s&amp;feature=emb_title&amp;kind=embed-youtube&amp;provider=youtube" style="border: 0; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; position: absolute;" allowfullscreen="" scrolling="no" allow="encrypted-media; accelerometer; clipboard-write; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" title="content from youtube" loading="lazy"></iframe></div></div> <p>“I always looked forward to receiving Hongbao from my parents. It’s a red envelope with money inside for good luck. Now my dog, Burger, gets Hongbao treats too.”</p> <p><em><strong>— Zihan Miao, customer insights manager, San Francisco, U.S.</strong></em></p> <div class="embed embed-oembed embed-youtube"><div style="left: 0; width: 100%; height: 0; position: relative; padding-bottom: 56.25%;"><iframe src=";v=p0PBtwb6UOw&amp;feature=emb_title&amp;kind=embed-youtube&amp;provider=youtube" style="border: 0; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; position: absolute;" allowfullscreen="" scrolling="no" allow="encrypted-media; accelerometer; clipboard-write; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" title="content from youtube" loading="lazy"></iframe></div></div> <p>“My family would spend hours together, baking trays of pineapple tarts for friends and relatives. Mom’s recipe is the best!”</p> <p><em><strong>— Clarissa Nah, marketing manager, Singapore</strong></em></p> <div class="embed embed-oembed embed-youtube"><div style="left: 0; width: 100%; height: 0; position: relative; padding-bottom: 56.25%;"><iframe src=";v=RbAo6GSveTM&amp;feature=emb_title&amp;kind=embed-youtube&amp;provider=youtube" style="border: 0; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; position: absolute;" allowfullscreen="" scrolling="no" allow="encrypted-media; accelerometer; clipboard-write; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" title="content from youtube" loading="lazy"></iframe></div></div> <p>“Lunar New Year is a really special time for me, as my family gets together to celebrate my Grandmother and treat her with new clothes, flowers and her favorite food!”</p> <p><em><strong>— Zara Un, EMEA e-commerce manager, London, UK</strong></em></p> <h3 id="food-glorious-food">Food, Glorious Food</h3> <p>Food is the heart of LNY. While the family reunion dinner on LNY eve is the most significant meal of the celebrations, holiday feasting often starts weeks before and lasts through the first 15 days of LNY. For our employees, we’ll be hosting a Lunar New Year Celebration and Cooking Demonstration on February 18! We can’t wait to celebrate with everyone virtually!</p> <div class="embed embed-oembed embed-youtube"><div style="left: 0; width: 100%; height: 0; position: relative; padding-bottom: 56.25%;"><iframe src=";v=ZkIn7w4YS2I&amp;feature=emb_title&amp;kind=embed-youtube&amp;provider=youtube" style="border: 0; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; position: absolute;" allowfullscreen="" scrolling="no" allow="encrypted-media; accelerometer; clipboard-write; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" title="content from youtube" loading="lazy"></iframe></div></div> <p>“My wife’s family typically mixes the Asian must-haves (roast pig) with the Australian (sashimi and oysters) — it becomes a very fusion plate.”</p> <p><em><strong>— William Leung, Japan &amp; APAC, head of acquisitions and search marketing, Sydney, Australia</strong></em></p> <p><img src="/hlx_4f9c704941a089d677c99396ca6ac9e9041672b8.png" alt="Franklin celebrating Lunar New Year with his family."></p> <p>“LNY for me means a big family gathering with each household bringing dishes; wearing red and new clothes signifying a new year and a fresh start; and handing out red envelopes to the kids.”</p> <p><em><strong>— Franklin Tjhin, APAC search marketing manager, Sydney, Australia</strong></em></p> <p><img src="/hlx_b9eda85217a4b7f5cb927697f5b924413531fda3.png" alt="Dan Jiao’ — egg wrap with seasoned pork, which symbolizes &quot;treasures of gold,&quot; and ‘Jiu Niang Tang’ — sweet wine-rice soup with small rice balls symbolizing &quot;family reunion and perfection.&quot; "></p> <p>“For LNY, we would prepare ‘Dan Jiao’ — egg wrap with seasoned pork, which symbolizes “treasures of gold,” and ‘Jiu Niang Tang’ — sweet wine-rice soup with small rice balls symbolizing “family reunion and perfection.” This year, to commemorate the Year of the Ox, we will have a beef dish too.”</p> <p><em><strong>— Chloe Wang, executive assistant, Shanghai, China</strong></em></p> <div class="embed embed-oembed embed-youtube"><div style="left: 0; width: 100%; height: 0; position: relative; padding-bottom: 56.25%;"><iframe src=";v=JSg81DmzfmU&amp;feature=emb_title&amp;kind=embed-youtube&amp;provider=youtube" style="border: 0; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; position: absolute;" allowfullscreen="" scrolling="no" allow="encrypted-media; accelerometer; clipboard-write; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" title="content from youtube" loading="lazy"></iframe></div></div> <div class="embed embed-oembed embed-youtube"><div style="left: 0; width: 100%; height: 0; position: relative; padding-bottom: 75%;"><iframe src=";v=HanLdv_0Qxc&amp;feature=emb_title&amp;kind=embed-youtube&amp;provider=youtube" style="border: 0; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; position: absolute;" allowfullscreen="" scrolling="no" allow="encrypted-media; accelerometer; clipboard-write; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" title="content from youtube" loading="lazy"></iframe></div></div> <h3 id="cross-culture-celebration">Cross-culture Celebration</h3> <div class="embed embed-oembed embed-youtube"><div style="left: 0; width: 100%; height: 0; position: relative; padding-bottom: 56.25%;"><iframe src=";v=chR_XZebpR8&amp;feature=emb_title&amp;kind=embed-youtube&amp;provider=youtube" style="border: 0; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; position: absolute;" allowfullscreen="" scrolling="no" allow="encrypted-media; accelerometer; clipboard-write; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" title="content from youtube" loading="lazy"></iframe></div></div> <p>“Special greetings in Korean, French, and English!”</p> <p><em><strong>— Hyojin Shin, marketing manager, Seoul, South Korea</strong></em></p> <p><img src="/hlx_fd0cf5d4f2ba67d63d02436d8d75388fa591f322.png" alt=""></p> <p>“We are celebrating LNY in a special way this year. Our 10-year-old daughter was selected as a young ambassador to represent the U.S at the Silk Road Children’s Emissary in China, which is being broadcast to over 82 countries. Makenna was chosen because of her singing ability and her relationship as the great great niece of Helen Foster Snow, a journalist from Utah who was nominated twice for the Nobel Peace Prize for her contributions to modern Chinese history in the 1930s.”</p> <p><em><strong>— Adam Foster, talent management and development, Workfront, Utah, U.S.</strong></em></p> <div class="embed embed-internal embed-internal-adobeforall embed-internal-adobelife"> <div><p><img src="/hlx_c8c81ea35423b0511a921017439ef0a520f84d33.png" alt=""></p> <h3 id="adobe-for-all">Adobe For All</h3> <p>We believe that when people feel respected and included they can be more creative, innovative, and successful, which is why we are committed to investing in building a diverse and inclusive environment for our employees, customers, partners, and the tech industry as a whole.</p> <p><a href="">Learn more</a></p></div> </div> </div> <div> <h2 id="featured-posts">Featured posts:</h2> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </div> <div> <p>Topics: #AdobeForAll, Brand, Adobe Life, Adobe Culture, Adobe Life - Asia</p> <p>Products:</p> </div> </div>

February 11, 2021 12:00 AM

February 10, 2021

Updates to the Storage Access API

Surfin’ Safari

The Storage Access API allows third-party web content to ask for permission to get access to its unpartitioned storage, typically in order to authenticate the user. In the case of Safari and WebKit, using the Storage Access API enables cookie access under Intelligent Tracking Prevention.

This blog post covers two changes to the Storage Access API in Safari and WebKit as well as a how-to guide on adoption based on questions we’ve been asked the last two years.

Changes to API Functionality

iOS and iPadOS 14.5, and macOS Big Sur 11.3 betas feature two sought after changes to the Storage Access API in Safari and WebKit – per-page storage access and support for nested iframes. Both of these changes were driven by the standards process in W3C Privacy CG.

Per-Page Storage Access

If a request for storage access is granted to embedee.example, access is now granted to all embedee.example resource loads under the current first party webpage. This includes sibling embedee.example iframes but also other, non-document resources.

Nested Iframes Can Request Storage Access

Imagine a webpage embedding a cross-site iframe from embedeeOne.example which in turn embeds a cross-site iframe from embedeeTwo.example which makes the latter a so called nested iframe. As of this release, nested iframes such as embedeeTwo.example are also allowed to request storage access. Note that we may require first parties to explicitly delegate this capability through Permissions Policy at a later stage. Mozilla has expressed an interest in such control.

How To Use the Storage Access API

For the purposes of this guide we will use the domains social.example for the embedded content in need of cookie access and news.example as the first party website embedding social.example.

First, Cross-Site Iframes Call the API

The Storage Access API is called from inside cross-site, or third-party, iframes. You don’t have to call the API if your website is first party and first party websites cannot call the API on behalf of third-parties.

How-To #1: Meet and Greet the User as First Party

If you want to make use of the Storage Access API as a third-party, you first need to take these steps as a first party:

  1. Make sure you are using regular browsing mode, i.e. not Private Browsing. We will cover Private Browsing at the end of this guide.
  2. Take the user to your domain as first party. This is your website showing itself and giving the user a chance to recognize your brand and domain name. Recognition is important since the prompt for storage access features your embedded iframe’s domain. In our example, this is taking the user to a webpage with social.example in the URL bar, either though a navigation or a popup.
  3. Have the user interact (tap, click, or use the keyboard) with your website as first party. This tells the browser that the user has actually seen and used the site. Note: Navigating to and from your website in a redirect without user interaction does not count. Formally, WebKit’s requirement is user interaction as first party the last 30 days of browser use. Being granted storage access through the Storage Access API counts as such user interaction. In our example, this is having the user tap/click on the webpage with social.example in the URL bar.
  4. Set cookies when you are first-party. This establishes the website as “visited” for the purposes of the underlying cookie policy. Third parties without cookies cannot set cookies in Safari and never have since Safari 1.0 in 2003. This means you cannot use the Storage Access API as third-party until you have set at least one cookie as first party. In our example, this is setting cookies for social.example with social.example in the URL bar.

The above requirements are there to make sure the sometimes 50-100 embedded third-parties on a single webpage cannot all prompt the user for storage access, only the ones the user has visited and interacted with can.

How-To #2: Use the Storage Access API as Third Party

Once you have had the user interact with your website as first party and have set cookies as first party, you are ready to make use of the Storage Access API.

  1. In shipping Safari, your cross-site iframe that is about to request storage access must be a direct child frame of the top frame. Nested iframes can request storage access as of iOS 14.5 and macOS 11.3 (currently in beta).
  2. Make your cross-site iframe call document.hasStorageAccess() as soon as it’s rendered to check your status. Note: Don’t call this function upon a user gesture since it’s asynchronous and will consume the gesture. Once the user gesture is consumed, making a subsequent call to document.requestStorageAccess() will fail because it’s not called when processing a user gesture. In our example this is social.example‘s iframe.
  3. If document.hasStorageAccess() returns false, your iframe doesn’t have storage access. Now set an event handler on elements that represent UI which requires storage access and make the event handler call document.requestStorageAccess() on a tap or click. This is the API that requires a user gesture. In our example this is social.example‘s iframe calling the API.
  4. Render the page with your cross-site iframe. Tap or click on an element with an event handler in the iframe. In our example this is rendering a page from news.example with thesocial.example‘s iframe and clicking on an element in the social.example iframe’s document.
  5. If the user has not yet opted in to storage access for social.example under news.example there will now be a prompt. Choose “Don’t Allow” in the prompt. Tip: Don’t choose “Allow” yet because it’ll be remembered and you’ll have to delete browser history to reset it. If you are not getting the prompt, you either have not gotten user interaction as first party and set cookies for social.example yet (see How-To #1) or you have already chosen “Allow” earlier which is remembered.
  6. Test the behavior for the “Don’t Allow” case. You can do it repeatedly. Do it until you’re happy with how your code handles it. Note that when the user chooses “Don’t Allow” in the prompt, their user gesture is consumed and any further API calls in your iframe that require a user gesture will have to get the user to tap or click again. We’ve deliberately designed it this way to make sure that an explicit deny from the user doesn’t trigger further privileged API calls from the iframe. The user should at this point be able to continue with other things.
  7. Now tap or click the iframe again and this time choose “Allow” in the prompt. This should open up cookie access on resolution of the promise.
  8. Test the behavior for the “Allow” case. Note that when the user chooses “Allow” in the prompt, their user gesture is preserved and any further API calls in your iframe that require a user gesture can go right ahead. We’ve deliberately designed it this way so that when you get access to cookies and note that the user is not in the desired state, such as not logged in, you can open a popup or navigate them to your website without further user gestures. In our example this would be a popup or navigation to social.example.
  9. Now reload the webpage. This will reset your per-page storage access. Tap or click the iframe to trigger the call to document.requestStorageAccess(). This should open up cookie access without a prompt since the user has already opted in and that choice is remembered.
  10. Finally test the flow in Private Browsing Mode. In that mode, the user must interact with your website as first party (see How-To #1) in the same tab as where you later request storage access as third-party. This is because Private Browsing Mode uses a separate ephemeral session for each new tab the user opens, i.e. the state of those tabs are separate. The rest should work the same as in regular mode.

February 10, 2021 05:00 PM

February 01, 2021

Introducing Private Click Measurement, PCM

Surfin’ Safari

This blog post covers a new feature called Private Click Measurement, or PCM, for measuring ad clicks across websites and from iOS apps to websites. It is part of iOS and iPadOS 14.5 betas.

Motivation and Goals

Classic ad attribution on the web is done with cookies carrying user or device IDs. Such attribution constitutes cross-site tracking which WebKit is committed to preventing. Websites should not be able to attribute data of an ad click and a conversion to a single user as part of large scale tracking.

At the same time, we want to support measurement of online advertising. PCM achieves this tradeoff by sending attribution reports with limited data in a dedicated Private Browsing mode without any cookies, delaying reports randomly between 24 and 48 hours to disassociate events in time, and handling data on-device.

The Feature in a Nutshell

  • A new, on-by-default feature called Private Click Measurement, or PCM, for privacy-preserving measurement of ad clicks across websites and from iOS apps to websites in iOS and iPadOS 14.5 betas.
  • An 8-bit identifier on the click source side, which means 256 parallel ad campaigns can be measured per website or app.
  • A 4-bit identifier on the conversion side, which means 16 different conversion events can be distinguished.
  • Fraud prevention via unlinkable tokens will be coming.

A Proposed Standard

We first proposed privacy-preserving measurement of ad clicks in May 2019. Since then the proposal has changed name to Private Click Measurement and been discussed extensively in the W3C Privacy Community group, both through meetings and on GitHub.

A proposal needs two independent implementations to be on track to become a web standard. This means another browser such as Firefox, Brave, Chrome, or Edge needs to independently implement PCM before it can move further along the standards track. We are working with them to get there.

Nevertheless, we are happy to be the first browser to enable a proposed web standard for measuring advertising!

On By Default

You may ask why we are enabling PCM by default before there is a second independent implementation and before we’ve added the fraud prevention mechanism discussed in W3C Privacy CG. The reasons are:

  • Early access. We recognize the need for early access so that advertisers, websites, and apps can adopt the technology, analyze real data, tune their measurement, and report any issues to us.
  • Equal access. We want to provide everyone with the opportunity to test and use this technology from the get-go. An alternative would be to only run it with selected partners but we have opted for an open approach.
  • Attribution data is stable. Fraud prevention tokens will be added and naming of data labels might change, but the functionality and attribution data is stable, namely 8 bits on the click source side and 4 bits on the attribute-on side. Thus, full scale tests of PCM are meaningful and useful at this point.

Web-to-Web Click Measurement

PCM web-to-web is the case covered by the proposed standard, i.e. a user clicks a link on a webpage, is navigated cross-site, and up to seven days later, there’s a signal on the destination website saying it would like attribution for any previous clicks that took the user here.

For the purposes of the examples below, we assume the click happens on a website called social.example and the click navigates the user to shop.example.

The Click Side

Links that want to store click measurement data should look like this:

<!-- Link on social.example --> 
<a href="https://shop.example/product.html" 
   attributionsourceid="[8-bit source ID]"



The two mandatory attributes are:

  • attributionsourceid: The 8-bit attribution source ID, allowed to be between 0 and 255. This was earlier referred to as the ad campaign ID but since PCM is not technically tied to advertising, it was decided in the standards discussion that its attributes and key names should not use advertising terms.
  • attributeon. The click destination website which wants to attribute incoming navigations to clicks. Note that PCM only uses the registrable domain or eTLD+1, i.e. there is no separation based on subdomains. This is so that the destination cannot be set up as to track user Jane Doe.

If the click indeed navigated the user to the attributeon website, the attributionsourceid is stored as a click from social.example to shop.example for 7 days.

Note that this data is not accessible to websites. It’s silently stored in the browser.

The Triggering Event

To trigger click attribution, the “attribute on” website has to make an HTTP GET request to the website(s) where it is running click-through ads. This way of doing it is intended to support existing “tracking pixels” and make adoption easy. In our example this would be the shop.example site making an HTTP GET request to social.example. For a more modern way of triggering attribution, see the Future Enhancements section.

The HTTP GET request to social.example triggers attribution if it is redirected to https://social.example/.well-known/private-click-measurement/trigger-attribution/[``4-bit`` trigger data]/[optional 6-bit priority]. Note: The first beta lacks the /trigger-attribution path component since this was a very recent decision in the standards group.

The two URL path parameters are:

  • Trigger data. This is a 4-bit value between 00 and 15 that encodes the triggering event (note the mandatory two digits). This was earlier referred to as the conversion value but again, PCM is not technically tied to advertising so it doesn’t use advertising terms.
  • Optional priority. This is a 6-bit value between 00 and 63 which allows multiple triggering events to result in a single attribution report for the event with the highest priority (again, note the two digits). For instance, there might be multiple steps in a sales funnel where each step triggers attribution but steps further down the funnel have higher priority. This value only controls which trigger data goes into the attribution report and is not part of the attribution report itself. You may ask why this isn’t a 4-bit value like the trigger data. The reason is to support easy changes to what’s being measured without having to remap several trigger-data-to-priority pairs. Triggering events 00-15 may start out as mapped to priority 00-15 but then the shop owner wants to drill into events 5-7. With the extra bits, it’s easy to assign triggering events 05-07 to priority 20-22 so as to focus attribution reports to those.

Once a triggering event matches a stored click, a single attribution report is scheduled by the browser to be sent out randomly between 24 and 48 hours later, or the earliest time thereafter when the browser is running. As long as an attribution report has not yet been sent, it can be rescheduled based on a triggering event with higher priority.

The Attribution Report

PCM attribution reports are sent as HTTP POST requests to /.well-known/private-click-measurement/report-attribution/ on the website where the click happened, in our example https://social.example/.well-known/private-click-measurement/report-attribution/. Note: The first beta lacks the /report-attribution path component since this was a very recent decision in the standards group.

The report is in JSON and looks like this:

  "source_engagement_type" : "click",
  "source_site" : "social.example",
  "source_id" : [8-bit source ID],
  "attributed_on_site" : "shop.example",
  "trigger_data" : [4-bit trigger data],
  "version": 1

Notes on the non-obvious key-values above:

  • source_engagement_type is always “click” for PCM. This field allows for future use of this report mechanism for other types of attribution such as view-through.
  • version signals to the receiving end which version of the attribution feature this is. You should expect this number to be increased when fraud prevention tokens are added or something else about the mechanism is changed. This allows concurrent versions to work in parallel and provides a signal to developers that there may be things they need to change or adopt on their side.

App-to-Web Click Measurement

This is exciting – we’re adding the capability to measure ad clicks from iOS and iPadOS apps to Safari!

Many advertisers in apps want to take the user to their website where the user can buy a product or sign up for a service. This is exactly the kind of ad PCM app-to-web allows them to measure.

The Click Side

The only thing that differs from PCM web-to-web is on the click side which is in an iOS app. To adopt this technology you need to do this:

  1. Add a URL to where you want PCM’s ad attribution reports to be sent when ads are clicked in your app. You do this under the key NSAdvertisingAttributionReportEndpoint in your Info.plist. The naming of this endpoint is deliberately not tied to PCM. Potential future ad measurement reports associated with apps may use this URL with a differing well-known location if appropriate. Note that the subsequent HTTP redirect to trigger attribution needs to go to this website.
  2. Populate and add the new UIEventAttribution to the options of your call to openURL:. See below for what fields you need to enter in UIEventAttribution.
  3. Overlay the parts of the click-through ad that will trigger navigations to websites with the new UIEventAttributionView. This view only serves as a checkpoint for Apple’s code on-device to check that a user gesture happened before the navigation. The view does not consume the gesture and you are free to decide whether or not to navigate to a website even if the gesture happened on one of these views. A user gesture is required for your UIEventAttribution object to be forwarded to the browser as part of the call to openURL:. Note that PCM app-to-web is so far only supported in Safari and only on iOS and iPadOS. We intend to add WebKit API to enable other default browsers to be the destination of PCM app-to-web too.


This is the optional data structure you submit in your call to openURL: when you want to measure clicks:

open class UIEventAttribution : NSObject, NSCopying {
    open var sourceIdentifier: UInt8 { get }
    open var destinationURL: URL { get }
    open var reportEndpoint: String? { get }
    open var sourceDescription: String { get }
    open var purchaser: String { get }
    public init(sourceIdentifier: UInt8,
                destinationURL: URL,
                sourceDescription: String,
                purchaser: String)
  • sourceIdentifier is the same as PCM’s attributionsourceid attribute for links. Allowed values are 0-255.
  • destinationURL is the same as PCM’s attributeon attribute for links but it should be a full URL with protocol. The report will be sent to the URL’s registrable domain (eTLD+1) and over HTTPS.
  • reportEndpoint will be picked up by Apple code from your info.plist’s NSAdvertisingAttributionReportEndpoint. As you can see, the init function does not take this parameter. This is where PCM will send any subsequent ad attribution reports. The reason why it need to be stated in the static Info.plist is so that it cannot be used as a tracking vector by dynamically submitting user-specific reporting URLs such as janeDoeTracking.example.
  • sourceDescription is a human-readable description of the content that was tapped. This string should be no longer than roughly 100 characters and can be localized according to the context. It will not be seen by Apple or the destination website. Instead it’s intended to be able to show to users what ad click data they have stored.
  • purchaser is a human-readable name or description of the purchaser of the content that was tapped, typically the ad buyer. This string should be no longer than roughly 100 characters and can be localized according to the context. It will not be seen by Apple or the destination website. Instead it’s intended to be able to show to users what ad click data they have stored.

UIEventAttribution Sample Code

func openAdLink() {
    let adURL = URL(string: "https://shop.example/tabletStandDeluxe.html")!
    let eventAttribution =
        UIEventAttribution(sourceIdentifier: 4,
                           destinationURL: adURL,
                           sourceDescription: "Banner ad for Tablet Stand Deluxe.",
                           purchaser: "Shop Example, Inc.")

    // If using scene lifecycle.
    let sceneOpenURLOptions = UIScene.OpenExternalURLOptions()
    sceneOpenURLOptions.eventAttribution = eventAttribution
                                        options: sceneOpenURLOptions,
                                        completionHandler: nil)

    // If using application lifecycle.
    let appOpenURLOptions: [UIApplication.OpenExternalURLOptionsKey : Any] = [
        .eventAttribution: eventAttribution
                              options: appOpenURLOptions,
                              completionHandler: nil)


UIEventAttributionView is the view that is placed over the tappable content, typically an ad. It’s used by the system to verify that a user gesture has occurred.

open class UIEventAttributionView : UIView {

The view is invisible and very lightweight. The simplest use case is to create one of these views and stretch it over your entire tappable content. You can also place multiple over a single piece of content if you for instance want to create specific tappable areas.

To ensure your UIEventAttributionView works correctly:

  • Ensure isUserInteractionEnabled is false. This is the default value for this view and ensures the view doesn’t consume events which would otherwise go to the content beneath it.
  • Ensure there are no views placed on top of the event attribution view. The user should be tapping this view for it to count as a user gesture for the purposes of PCM app-to-web.
  • Ensure your tap handling occurs on a touch up event. This automatically occurs if your content is tapped in response to a UITapGestureRecognizer firing or at the .ended state of a UILongPressGestureRecognizer.

UIEventAttributionView Sample Code

func addEventAttributionView() {
    // Create an event attribution view.
    let eventAttributionView = UIEventAttributionView()

    // Place it over your ad however you'd like.
    eventAttributionView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
        adView.topAnchor.constraint(equalTo: eventAttributionView.topAnchor),
        adView.leadingAnchor.constraint(equalTo: eventAttributionView.leadingAnchor),
        adView.trailingAnchor.constraint(equalTo: eventAttributionView.trailingAnchor),
        adView.bottomAnchor.constraint(equalTo: eventAttributionView.bottomAnchor)

Testing and Debugging

WebKit has an experimental feature called Private Click Measurement Debug Mode. You’ll find it under Develop–>Experimental Features on macOS and under Settings–>Safari–>Advanced–>Experimental Features on iOS and iPadOS. When you enable this mode and restart Safari, reports go out a mere 10 seconds after the triggering event instead of 24-48 hours later. This allows quick turnaround in testing and debugging.

The debug mode also enables debug output in Web Inspector’s console. This output will show up by default in a later beta.

Remember to disable debug mode once you’re done testing.

Future Enhancements

As is always the case with web standards, proposed or established, there are enhancement requests, corner cases, and a need to evolve the specification as the platform progresses. Below is a list of prominent and relevant issues that may show up as changes to our implementation of PCM in upcoming releases. Please take part on GitHub if you have input.

  • Fraud prevention with unlinkable tokens, GitHub issue #27. A proposed solution was presented to W3C Privacy CG in May 2020. It will use what is traditionally called blinded signatures (we call them unlinkable tokens). The intention is to offer websites to cryptographically sign tokens which will be included in attribution reports in a format that makes it impossible to link them back to the event when they were signed. These tokens serve as proof to the report recipient that they trusted the events involved (link click and attribution trigger) without telling them which events.
  • Modern JavaScript API for triggering event instead of legacy tracking pixels, GitHub issue #31. The intent here is to let a JavaScript call serve as the triggering event instead of redirected tracking pixels. This will remove the requirement for making third-party requests all together.
  • Attribution reports to advertisers too, GitHub issue #53. We have expressed that we’d like the attribution report to be sent to both the click source and the advertiser site. However, this sparked a conversation on sending reports to designated third-parties and you can read and join that conversation in GitHub issue #57.
  • Support PCM links in nested iframes, GitHub issue #7. This is about measuring click-through ads served in cross-site iframes. Since subsequent attribution reports will be sent to the first-party click source site, it’s not clear how that first party should control click measurement requested on its behalf. Part of this conversation covers not just serving of ads by third parties but also reporting to such third-parties. The privacy risk of such a scheme is explored in GitHub issue #57.

Misuse or Use Together With Tracking May Lead To Blocking

PCM is intended to support privacy-preserving measurement of clicks across websites or from apps to websites. It is not intended to be used to track users, events, or devices across those contexts.

If PCM is being misused for tracking purposes or being used in conjunction with unrelated means of tracking users, events, or devices, we may block the offending party from using PCM and potential future measurement features.


  • What about PCM web-to-app? We are interested in this but don’t have a solution yet.
  • What about view-through ad attribution? We are interested in this but don’t have a privacy-preserving solution yet.
  • Is there a reason why the click has to take the user to the device’s browser? Yes. Stored clicks are valid for 7 days. Let’s assume that the user doesn’t trigger attribution right after they click but want to think about it first. When they choose to re-engage a few hours or days later they will most likely go to their browser and either look up the tab where they left off, use a bookmark they might have saved, use their search provider to find the right webpage, or enter the website’s address directly in the URL bar. For the stored click data to be readily available when the user re-engages in this fashion, the initial click needs to take the user to their browser since PCM data just like other website data is not shared between browsers and WebViews. In short: The user’s browser is the most likely place where delayed click-through attribution will happen.
  • Does use of PCM app-to-web require the app to be granted permission to track according to AppTrackingTransparency? No.
  • How do users delete stored clicks? Stored clicks are deleted when they delete website data.
  • Can users opt out of PCM? Yes. There is a new Safari privacy setting for privacy-preserving ad measurement. If the user has opted out, no click metadata will be stored and no attribution reports will be sent out.
  • Is PCM enabled in Private Browsing Mode? No.
  • What is the maximum number of parallel ad campaigns per source website or source app? 256, with the actual value being between 0 and 255.
  • What is the maximum number of triggering events I can distinguish? 16, with the actual value being between 0 and 15.
  • What is the maximum time between a click and a triggering event to still get attribution? 7 days.
  • Can I use PCM app-to-web with WebViews? No. Apps have too much control over WebViews for a feature like PCM to be able to protect the data.
  • Can I use PCM app-to-web with SFSafariViewController? We are interested in this but don’t have a solution yet.
  • Can other default browsers on iOS and iPadOS participate in PCM app-to-web? It is our intention to add such an API at a later point. Please let us know if you are interested.
  • Where can I provide feedback? Please file any web-facing issues or issues with the attribution report mechanism directly to WebKit: Please use Feedback Assistant for any issues with UIKit APIs or the Info.plist integration:

Thank You

We’d like to thank the W3C Privacy Community Group for all the work filing issues, suggesting changes, and engaging with us on this work. Please continue to do so as we move forward. Also, a big thank you to the engineers who’ve helped implement this feature – Anant, Kate, Jon, Chris, Jonathan, Chris, and Glen.

February 01, 2021 07:30 PM

January 27, 2021

Manuel Rego: :focus-visible in WebKit - January 2021

Igalia WebKit

Let’s do a small introduction as this is a kind of special post.

As you might already know, last summer Igalia launched the Open Prioritization experiment, and :focus-visible in WebKit was the winner according to the pledges that the different projects got. Now it has moved into collecting funds stage, so far we’ve reached 80% of the goal and Igalia has already started to work on this. If you are interested and want to help sponsoring this work, please visit the project page at Open Collective.

In our regular client projects in Igalia, we provide periodic progress reports about the status of tasks and next plans. This blog post is a kind of monthly report, but this time the project has many customers, so it looks like this is a better format to share information about the status of things. Thank you all for supporting us in this development! 🙏

Understanding :focus-visible

Disclaimer: This is not a blog post explaining how :focus-visible works or the implications it has, you can read other articles if you’re looking for that.

First things first, my initial thoughts were that :focus-visible was a pseduo-class which would match an element when the browser natively shows a focus indicator (focus ring, outline) when an element of a page is focused. And that’s more or less what the spec says on the first sentence:

The :focus-visible pseudo-class applies while an element matches the :focus pseudo-class and the user agent determines via heuristics that the focus should be made evident on the element.

They key part here is that native behavior doesn’t show the focus indicator on purpose in some situations when the :focus pseudo-class matches, mainly because usability studies indicate that showing it in all the cases is not what the user expects and wants. Before having :focus-visible the web authors have not way to access the same criteria to style the focus indicator only when it’s going to be shown natively, and still keep the website being accessible.

Apart from that the spec has a set of heuristics that despite being non-normative, it looks like all implementations are following them. Summarizing them briefly they’d be something like:

  • If you use the mouse to focus an element it won’t match :focus-visible.
  • If you use the keyboard it’ll match :focus-visible.
  • Elements that support keyboard input (like <input> or contenteditable) always match :focus-visible.
  • When a script focuses a new element it’ll match or not :focus-visible depending on the previous active element.

This is just a quick & dirty summary, please read the spec for all the details. There have been years of research around these topics (how focus should work or not on the different use cases, what are the users and accessibility needs, how websites are managing focus, etc.) and these heuristics are somehow the result of all that work.

:focus-visible in the default UA style sheet

At this point it looks like we can more or less understand what :focus-visible is about. So let’s start playing with it. The definition seems very clear, but testing things in the current implementations (Chromium and Firefox) you might find some unexpected situations.

Let’s use a very basic example:

  :focus-visible { background: lime; }
<div tabindex="0">Focus me.</div>
#example1:focus-visible { background: lime; } #warning1 { display: none; color: red; font-size: 75%; font-style: italic; } @supports not (selector(:focus-visible)) { #warning1 { display: block; } }
WARNING: :focus-visible is not supported on your browser.
Focus me.

If you focus the <div> with a mouse click, :focus-visible doesn’t match per spec, so in this case the background doesn’t become green (if you use the keyboard to focus it will match :focus-visible and the background would be green). This works the same in Chromium and Firefox, but Chromium (despite the element doesn’t match :focus-visible) shows a focus indicator. Somehow the first spec definition is already not working as expected on Chromium… The issue here is that Chromium still uses :focus { outline: auto; } in the default UA style sheet, and the element matches :focus after the mouse click, that’s why it’s showing a focus indicator while not matching :focus-visible.

Actually this was already on the spec, but Chromium is not following that yet:

User agents should also use :focus-visible to specify the default focus style, so that authors using :focus-visible will not also need to disable the default :focus style.

There was already a related CSSWG issue on the topic, as the spec currently suggests the following code:

:focus:not(:focus-visible) {
  outline: 0;

This works as a kind of workaround for this issue, but if the default UA style sheet uses :focus-visible that won’t be needed.

Anyway, I’ve reported the Chromium bug and created WPT tests, during the tests review Emilio Cobos realized that this needed a change on the HTML spec and he wrote a PR to update it. After some discussion with Alice Boxhall the HTML change and the tests were approved and merged. I even was brave enough to write a patch to change this in Chromium which is still under review and needs some extra work.

The tests

WebKit is the third browser engine adding support for :focus-visible so the first natural step was to import the WPT tests related to the feature. This looked like something simple but it ended up needing some work to improve the tests.

There was a bunch of :focus-visible tests already in the WPT suite, but they need some love:

  • Some parts of the spec were not covered by tests, so I added some new tests.
  • Some tests were passing in WebKit, even when there was not an implementation yet, so I modified them to fail if there’s no :focus-visible support.

Then I imported the tests in WebKit and I discovered a bug related to focus event and :focus pseudo-class. :focus pseudo-class was not matching inside the focus event handler. This is probably not important for web authors, but :focus-visbile tests were relying on that. Actually this had been fixed in Chromium more than 5 years ago, so first I moved to WPT the Chromium internal test and used it to fix the problem in WebKit.

Once the tests were imported in WebKit, the problem was that a bunch of them were timing out in Mac platforms. After investigating the issue I realized that it’s because focus event is not dispatched when you click on a button in Mac. Digging deeper I found this old bug with lots of discussions on the topic, it looks like this is done to keep alignment with the native platform behavior, and also in order to avoid showing a focus indicator. Even Firefox has the same behavior on Mac. However, Chromium always dispatch the event independently of the platform. This makes that some of the tests don’t work automatically on Mac, as they wait for a focus event that is never dispatched. Anyway maybe once :focus-visible is implemented, it could be rediscussed the possibility of modifying this behavior, thought it might be not possible anyway. In any case, WebKitGTK port, the one I’m using for the development, does trigger the focus event in this case; and I’ve also changed WPE port to do the same (maybe Windows port will follow too).

One more thing about the tests, lots of these :focus-visible tests use testdriver.js to simulate user actions. For example for clicking an element they use, however that simple instruction is causing some kind of memory leak on Chromium when running the tests. The actual Chromium bug hasn’t been fixed yet, but I landed some workarounds that prevent the issue in these tests (waiting for the promise to be resolved before marking the test as done).

Status of WPT :focus-visible tests in the different browsers Status of WPT :focus-visible tests in the different browsers

To close the tests part, you can check the status in, most of them are passing in all implementations which is great, but there are some interoperability issues that we’ll review next.

Interop issues

As I mentioned the website helps to easily identify the interop issues between the different implementations.

  • :focus-visible on the default UA style sheet: This has been already commented before, but this is the reason why Chromium fails focus-visible-018.html test. Firefox fails focus-visible-017.html because the default UA style sheet mentions outline: auto, but Firefox uses a dotted outline.

  • :focus-visible on <select> element: There’s a Firefox failure on focus-visible-002.html because it doesn’t match :focus-visible when you click a <select> element. I opened a CSSWG issue to discuss this, and I initially thought that the agreement was that Firefox behavior is the right one. So I did a patch to change Chromium’s behavior and update the tests, but during the review I was pointed to a Chromium bug about this topic that was closed as WONTFIX, the reason is that when you click a <select> element you can type letters to select the option from the keyboard. Right now the discussion has been reopened and we’ll need to wait for the final resolution on the topic, to see which is the right implementation.

  • Keyboard interaction once an element is focused: This is tested by focus-visible-007.html. The example here is that you click an element to focus it, initially the element doesn’t match :focus-visible but then you use the keyboard (for example you type a letter), in that situation Chromium will start matching :focus-visible while Firefox won’t. The spec is quite explicit on the topic so it looks like a Firefox bug:

    If the user interacts with the page via the keyboard, the currently focused element should match :focus-visible (i.e. keyboard usage may change whether this pseudo-class matches even if it doesn’t affect :focus).

  • Programmatic focus and :focus-visible: What should happen with :focus-visible when the website uses element.focus() from a script to move the focus? The spec has some heuristics that depend on if the active element before focus() is called was matching (or not) :focus-visible. But I’ve opened a CSSWG issue to discuss what should happen when there’s no active element. The discussion is still ongoing and depending on that there might be changes in the current implementations. Right now there are some subtle differences between Chromium and Firefox here.


Probably you don’t know what’s that, but it’s somehow related to :focus-visible so I believe it’s worth to mention it here.

WebKit is the browser that supports better :focus pseudo-class behavior on Shadow DOM (see the WPT tests results). The issue here is that the ShadowRoot should match :focus if some of the descendants are focused, so if you have an <input> element in the Shadow Tree, and you focus it, you’ll have 2 elements matching :focus the ShadowRoot and the <input>.

  #host {  padding: 1em; background: lightgrey; }
  #host:focus { background: lime; }
<div id="host"></div>
  shadowRoot = host.attachShadow(
    {mode: 'open', delegatesFocus: true});
  shadowRoot.innerHTML =
    '<input value="Focus me">';
#example2host { padding: 1em; background: lightgrey; } #example2host:focus { background: lime; }

In Chromium if you use delegatesFocus=true in element.attachShadow(), and you have an example like the one described above, you’ll get two focus indicators, one in the ShadowRoot and one in the <input>. Firefox doesn’t match :focus in the ShadowRoot so the issue is not present there.

WebKit matches :focus independently of delegatesFocus value (which is the right behavior per spec), so it’d be even more common to have a situation of getting two focus indicators. To avoid that WebKit introduced :-webkit-direct-focus pseudo-class, that is not web exposed, but it’s used in the default UA style sheet to avoid this bad effect of having a focus indicator on the ShadowRoot.

I believe :focus-visible spec should describe that behavior regarding how it works on ShadowRoot so it doesn’t match on those situations. That way WebKit could get rid of :-webkit-direct-focus and use :focus-visible once it’s implemented. I’ve reported a CSSWG issue to discuss this topic.

WIP implementation

So far I haven’t talked about the implementation at all, but the reason is that all the previous work is required in order to be able to do a proper implementation, with good quality and that is interoperable between the different browsers. :focus-visbile is a new feature, and despite all the interop mess regarding how focus works in the different browsers and platforms, we should aim to have a :focus-visible implementation as much interoperable as possible.

Despite all this related work, I’ve also found some time to work on a patch. It’s still not ready to be sent upstream but it’s already doing some things and passing some of the WPT tests. Of course several things are still missing, but next you can see quick screen recording with :focus-visible working on WebKit.

:focus-visible example running on WebKitGTK MiniBrowser

Some numbers

I know this is not really relevant, but it helps to get a grasp on what has been happening during this month:

  • 3 CSSWG issues reported.
  • 13 PRs merged in WPT.
  • 5 patches landed in WebKit.
  • 4 patches landed in Chromium.
  • And many discussions with different people, special thanks to Alice and Emilio that have been really helpful.

Next steps

The plan for February is to try to find an agreement on the CSSWG issues, close them, and update the WPT tests accordingly. Maybe this work could include even landing some patches on the current implementations. And of course, focus (pun intended) the effort on implementation of :focus-visible in WebKit.

I hope this blog post helps you to understand better the work that goes behind the scenes when a web platform feature is implemented, especially if you want to do it on a way that ensures browser interoperability and reduces web authors’ pain.

If you enjoyed this project update, stay tuned as there will more in the future.

January 27, 2021 11:00 PM

Release Notes for Safari Technology Preview 119

Surfin’ Safari

Safari Technology Preview Release 119 is now available for download for macOS Big Sur and macOS Catalina. If you already have Safari Technology Preview installed, you can update in the Software Update pane of System Preferences on macOS.

This release covers WebKit revisions 270749-271358.

Web Inspector

  • Elements
    • Enabled independent Styles details sidebar panel in the Elements Tab by default (r271319)
    • Improved the visibility of values by de-emphasizing range information in the Font details sidebar panel (r271329)
  • Timelines
    • Added a banner to the JavaScript Allocation timeline when new heap snapshots are added that are immediately filtered (r271236)

Speech Recognition

  • Enabled SpeechRecognition by default (r270854)
  • Added webkit- prefix to SpeechRecognition (r270868)
  • Added availability check of speech recognition service before requesting permissions (r271031)
  • Changed to fail speech recognition when the page is muted for audio capture (r271154)
  • Implemented recognizer for SpeechRecognition (r270772)
  • Stopped speech recognition if page becomes invisible (r271169, r271205)


  • Added support for aspect-ratio on positioned elements (r271061)
  • Changed to take aspect-ratio into account for percentage resolution (r271293)
  • Fixed an issue where toggling pointer-events on <body> prevented child elements from scrolling (r270849)
  • Fixed CSS Scroll Snap when the user scrolls via the keyboard (r270838)
  • Fixed :focus to match inside the focus event (r271146)
  • Fixed the default namespace getting ignored inside non-type selectors for :is() and :not() (r270955)
  • Fixed width: max-content with box-sizing: border-box to leave space for padding (r271003)
  • Implemented ::file-selector-button pseudo-element (r270784)
  • Prevented layout overflow from being computed incorrectly inside Flexbox and breaking sticky positioning (r271053)


  • Fixed scrolling issues when scrolling on only one axis is enabled (r271090)
  • Sibling element wheel event regions can be wrong (r271054)


  • Fixed non-enumerable property to shadow inherited enumerable property from for-in (r270874)
  • Fixed Intl.DateTimeFormat#formatRange to generate the same output to Intl.DateTimeFormat#format if startDate and endDate are “practically-equal” (r271224)
  • Implemented arbitrary-module-namespace-identifier-names (r270923)
  • Improved performance of Object rest and spread (r271343)


  • Used low-power audio buffer sizes for more output devices (r270943)
  • Updated the video element to ignore requests to enter or exit fullscreen before the current fullscreen mode change is completed (r271341)


  • Added support for memory.copy, memory.init, and data.drop behind flag (r270948)
  • Added support for memory.fill behind flag (r270855)
  • Added support for type-annotated select behind flag (r270827)
  • Updated WebAssembly instance’s exports object (r271112)
  • Updated WebAssembly multi-value to iterate iterable result from JS function first before converting values (r271113)
  • Updated WebAssembly Table/Memory/Global to allow inheritance (r271115)
  • Implemented WebAssembly BigInt handling (r271168)

Web Animations

  • Fixed animation issue on sibling elements caused by style sharing (r270837)


  • Fixed aria-orientation getting ignored on input[type="range"] (r271166)
  • Implemented prefers-contrast: more (r270823)
  • Updated list heuristics to include linked lists inside navigation containers (r270896)


  • Adjusted date input placeholder color based on specified text color (r270875)
  • Corrected the intrinsic size stored for SVG images (r271129)
  • Fixed “Open with Preview” menu item in PDF context menus on Big Sur (r270946)
  • Fixed some issues with PDFs as <object>. (r270998)
  • Fixed Service Worker inspection (r271294)
  • Changed text fields to not be translated while typing (r271262)

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed text content alignment inside an inline-block element (r271284)
  • Fixed inline block baseline with clipped overflow (r271348)

January 27, 2021 06:45 PM

January 20, 2021

Sergio Villar: Flexbox Cats (a.k.a fixing images in flexbox)

Igalia WebKit

In my previous post I discussed my most recent contributions to flexbox code in WebKit mainly targeted at reducing the number of interoperability issues among the most popular browsers. The ultimate goal was of course to make the life of web developers easier. It got quite some attention (I loved Alan Stearns' description of the post) so I decided to write another one, this time focused in the changes I recently landed in WebKit (Safari’s engine) to improve the handling of elements with aspect ratio inside flexbox, a.

January 20, 2021 10:45 AM

January 06, 2021

Release Notes for Safari Technology Preview 118

Surfin’ Safari

Safari Technology Preview Release 118 is now available for download for macOS Big Sur and macOS Catalina. If you already have Safari Technology Preview installed, you can update in the Software Update pane of System Preferences on macOS.

This release covers WebKit revisions 270230-270749.

Web Inspector

  • Elements
    • Added an experimental Font details sidebar panel for showing information about the currently used font of the selected node (r270637)
  • Sources
    • Added support for intercepting and overriding network requests (r270604)


  • Implemented Definite and Indefinite Sizes in flexbox (r270578)
  • Corrected cases in which box-sizing was border-box and didn’t use the content box to compute size based on aspect ratio (r270617)
  • Fixed preserving aspect ratio when computing cross size of flexed images in auto-height flex container (r270288)
  • Added support for aspect-ratio on replaced and non-replaced elements (r270551, r270618)
  • Changed text-decoration-color animation not to be discrete (r270597)
  • Changed getComputedStyle rounding lineHeight to nearest pixel (r270248)
  • Changed to trigger web font loads earlier (r270590)


  • Made only the first wheel event in a gesture to be cancelable (r270425)


  • Enabled “at” methods (r270550)
  • Changed get and set for object literal and class to not be escaped (r270487)
  • Accepted escaped keywords for class and object property names (r270481)
  • Aligned %TypedArray% constructor/slice behavior with the specification strictly (r270552, r270371)
  • Added a JSC API to allow acquiring the JSLock to accelerate performance (r270659)
  • Removed unnecessary JSLock use from various JSC APIs (r270665)
  • Aligned [[DefineOwnProperty]] method of mapped arguments object with the specification strictly (r270664)
  • Changed Reflect.preventExtensions not throwing if called on WindowProxy or Location (r270702)


  • Fixed rasterizer discard interfering with implicit clears in WebGL 2 (r270253)


  • Implemented WebVTT VTTCue region attribute (r270738)

Private Click Measurement

  • Exposed an API for enabling or disabling Private Click Measurement (r270710)


  • Added support for RTCRtpSender::setStreams (r270486)
  • Enabled use of new socket API for WebRTC TLS connections by default (r270680)
  • Fixed ICE not resolving for turns relay candidates rooted in LetsEncrypt CA (r270626)
  • Improved RTCRtpSender and RTCRtpReceiver transforms support (r270641, r270290, r270294, r270507, r270532)
  • Introduced an experimental flag specific to VP9 profile 2 (r270256)


  • Changed to allow blob URLs with fragments (r270269)
  • Fixed lazy loaded iframe to not lazy load when scripting is disabled (r270300)
  • Changed Reflect.preventExtensions to not throw if called on WindowProxy or Location (r270702)
  • Changed sessionStorage to not be cloned when a window is opened with rel=noopener (r270273)
  • Updated the list of blocked ports according fetch specification (r270321)


  • Fixed VoiceOver not announcing the aria-checked state for ARIA treeitem (r270333)


  • Fixed the onClicked listener not being called for page actions

January 06, 2021 09:10 PM

December 22, 2020

Manuel Rego: 2020 Recap

Igalia WebKit

2020 is not a great year to do any kind of recap, but there have been some positive things happening in Igalia during this year. Next you can find a highlight of some of these things in no particular order.

CSS Working Group A Coruña F2F

The year couldn’t start better, on January Igalia hosted a CSS Working Group face-to-face meeting in our office in A Coruña (Galicia, Spain). Igalia has experience arranging other events in our office, but this was the first time that the CSSWG came here. It was an amazing week and I believe everyone enjoined the visit to this corner of the world. 🌍

Brian Kardell from Igalia was talking to everybody about Container Queries. This is one of the features that web authors have been asking for since ever, and Brian was trying to push the topic forward and find some kind of solution (even if not 100% feature complete) for this topic. In that week there were discussions about the relationship with other topics like Resize Observer or CSS Containment, and new ideas appeared too. Brian posted a blog post after the event, explaining some of those ideas. Later my colleague Javi Fernández worked on an experiment that Brian mentioned on a recent post. The good news is that all these conversations managed to bring this topic back to life, and past November Google announced that they have started working on a Container Queries prototype in Chromium.

During the meeting Jen Simmons (in Mozilla at that time, now in Apple) presented some topics from Mozilla, including a detailed proposal for Masonry Layout based on Grid, this has been something authors have also showed interest, and Firefox has already a prototype implementation behind a runtime flag.

Apart from the three days full of meetings and interesting discussions, some of the CSSWG members participated in a local meetup giving 4 nice talks:

Finally, I remember some corridor conversations about the Mozilla layoffs that had just happened just a few days before the event, but nobody could expect what was going to happen during the summer. It looks like 2020 has been a bad year for Mozilla in general and Servo in particular. 😢

Open Prioritization

This summer Igalia launched the Open Prioritization campaign, where we proposed a list of topics to be implemented on the different browser engines, and people supported them with different pledges; I wrote a blog post about it by that time.

Open Prioritization: :focus-visible in Safari/WebKit: $30.8K pledged out of $35K. Open Prioritization: :focus-visible in Safari/WebKit

This was a cool experiment, and it looks like a successful one, as :focus-visible in WebKit/Safari has been the winner. Igalia is currently collecting funds through Open Collective in order to start the implementation of :focus-visible in WebKit, you still have time to support it if you’re interested. If everything goes fine this should happen during the first quarter of 2021. 🚀

Igalia Chats

This actually started in later 2019, but it has been ongoing during the whole 2020. Brian Kardell has been recording a podcast series about the web platform and some of its features with different people from the industry. They have been getting more and popular, and Brian was even asked to record one of these for the last BlinkOn edition.

So far 8 episodes of around 1 hour length have been published, with 13 different guests. More to come in 2021! If you are curious and want to know more, you can find them at Igalia website or in your favourite podcasting platform.

Igalia contributions

This is not a comprehensive list but just some highlights of what Igalia has been doing in 2020 around CSS:

We’re working on a demo about these features, that we’ll be publishing next year.

In February Chromium published the requirements to become API owner. Due to my involvement on the Blink project since the fork from WebKit back in 2013, I was nominated and became Blink API Owner past March. 🥳

Yoav Weiss on the BlinkOn 13 Keynote announcing me as API owner Yoav Weiss on the BlinkOn 13 Keynote announcing me as API owner

The API owners met on a weekly basis to review the intent threads and discuss about them, it’s an amazing learning experience to be part of this group. In my case when reviewing intents I usually pay attention to things related to interoperability, like the status of the spec, test suites and other implementations. In addition, I have the support from all my awesome colleagues at Igalia that help me to play this role, thank you all!

2021 and beyond…

Igalia keeps growing and a bunch of amazing folks will join us soon, particularly Delan Azabani and Felipe Erias are already starting these days as part of the Web Platform team.

Open Prioritization should have the first successful project, as :focus-visible is advancing funding and it gets implemented in WebKit. We hope this can lead to new similar experiments in the future.

And I’m sure many other cool things will happen at Igalia next year, stay tuned!

December 22, 2020 11:00 PM

December 14, 2020

CSS Individual Transform Properties

Surfin’ Safari

CSS Transforms appeared on the Web along with CSS Animations and CSS Transitions to add visual effects and motion on the Web. Those technologies have been a staple of the Web platform and Web developers’ toolkit for well over a decade. In fact, the CSS transform property first shipped in Safari all the way back in July 2008 when iPhone OS 2.0 shipped. You can find some historical posts about initial support in WebKit from October 2007, and another post from July 2009 focusing on 3D transforms when CSS Transforms shipped in Mac OS X Leopard.

And now, there is some news in the world of CSS Transforms: individual transform properties are enabled by default in Safari Technology Preview 117. This means that, as in Firefox and Chrome Canary, you can now use the new translate, rotate and scale CSS properties to specify what have so far been functions of the transform property, including 3D operations.

Using these properties is simple and should make Web developers feel right at home. Consider these two equivalent examples:

div.transform-property {
    transform: translate(100px, 100px) rotate(180deg) scale(2);

div.individual-properties {
    translate: 100px 100px;
    rotate: 180deg;
    scale: 2;

But why would you use these new properties over the transform property? One reason is convenience, as you might deem it simpler to write scale: 2 rather than transform: scale(2) when all you intend to do is scale an element.

But I think the main draw here is that you are now free to compose those various transform properties any way you see fit. For instance, you can easily write a CSS class to flip an element using the scale property without worrying that you might override other transform-related properties:

.flipped {
    scale: -1;

Your flipped class will work just fine even if a rotate or transform property applies a rotation to the element.

This feature also comes in handy when animating transforms. Let’s say you’re writing an animation that scales an element up over its entire duration but also applies a rotation for the second half of that animation. With the transform, property you would have had to pre-compute what the intermediate values for the scale should have been when the rotation would start and end:

@keyframes scale-and-rotate {
    0%   { transform: scale(1) }
    50%  { transform: scale(1.5) rotate(0deg) }
    100% { transform: scale(2) rotate(180deg) }

While this may not look like such a big deal when you look at it, making any further changes to those keyframes would require recomputing those values. Now, consider this same animation written with the individual transform properties:

@keyframes scale-and-rotate {
    0%   { scale: 0 }
    50%  { rotate: 0deg } 
    100% { scale: 1; rotate: 180deg; }

You can easily change the keyframes and add other properties as you like, leaving the browser to work out how to correctly apply those individual transform properties.

But that’s not all; there is also the case where you want separate animations to apply to an element at the same time. You could split out this single set of keyframes into two different sets and tweak the timing instead:

.animated {
    /* Apply the scale keyframes for 1s and the rotate
       keyframes for 500ms with a 500ms delay. */
    animation: scale 1s, rotate 500ms 500ms;

@keyframes scale {
    from { scale: 0 }
    to   { scale: 1 }

@keyframes rotate {
    from { rotate: 0deg }
    to   { rotate: 180deg }

Now keyframes applying to transforms are not only easier to author, but you can better separate the timing and the keyframes by composing multiple transform animations. And if you are a seasoned CSS Animations developer, you’ll know how important this can be when you factor in timing functions.

Additionally, animating the new individual transform properties retains the same great performance as animating the transform property since these properties support hardware acceleration.

But what about the transform property? How does it relate to those new individual transform properties?

First, remember that the transform property supports transform functions that are not represented as individual transform properties. There are no equivalent CSS properties for the skew(), skewX() and skewY() functions and no property equivalent to the matrix() function.

But what happens when you specify some of the individual transform properties as well as the transform property? The CSS Transform Level 2 specification explains how individual transform properties and the transform-origin and transform properties are composed to form the current transformation matrix. To summarize, first the individual transform properties are applied – translate, rotate, and then scale – and then the functions in the transform property are applied.

This means that there’s a clear model to use those individual transform properties and the transform property together to enhance your ability to transform content on the Web platform.

And before you start using these new properties, it is important that you know how to detect their availability and use transform as a fallback. Here, the @supports rule will allow you to do what you need:

@supports (translate: 0) {
    /* Individual transform properties are supported */
    div {
        translate: 100px 100px;

@supports not (translate: 0) {
    /* Individual transform properties are NOT supported */
    div {
        transform: translate(100px, 100px);

We encourage you to start exploring how to use those three new properties in Safari Technology Preview in your projects and file bug reports on should you encounter unexpected issues. You can also send a tweet to @webkit or @jonathandavis to share your thoughts on individual transform properties.

December 14, 2020 06:00 PM

December 10, 2020

Release Notes for Safari Technology Preview 117

Surfin’ Safari

Safari Technology Preview Release 117 is now available for download for macOS Big Sur and macOS Catalina. If you already have Safari Technology Preview installed, you can update in the Software Update pane of System Preferences on macOS.

This release covers WebKit revisions 268651-270230.

Web Inspector

  • Elements
    • Added the option to “Edit Breakpoint…” or “Reveal Breakpoint” in Sources Tab (r269337)
    • Extra closing parenthesis added after var in styles panel (r269201)
  • Network
    • Fixed background color of rows from previous session (r269127)
    • Truncated data URLs in the Resources sidebar and Headers panel (r269075)
  • Search
    • Prevented stealing focus from the search field when shown (r269074)
  • Sources
    • Changed the default breakpoint action to be evaluate (r269547)
  • Console
    • Exposed console command line API to breakpoint conditions and actions (r269023, r269044)
    • Fixed using Show JavaScript Console in an empty tab in Safari Technology Preview (r270060)
  • Other Changes
    • Updated styles to use CSS properties with neutral directionality (r269166)


  • Added support for discrete animations of many CSS properties (r269812, r269333, r269357, r268792, r268718, r268726)
  • Added support for animations on more pseudo-elements (such as :marker) (r269813)
  • Added support for more properties on ::marker (r269774)
  • Added parse support for aspect-ratio CSS property (r269641)
  • Made CSS font shorthands parsable within a worker (r269957)
  • Changed images as flex items to use the overridingLogicalHeight when defined to compute the logical width (r270073)
  • Changed images as flex items to use the overridingLogicalWidth when defined to compute the logical height (r270116)
  • Changed background-size to not accept negative values (r269237)
  • Fixed issues with percentage height on grid item replaced children when the grid item has a scrollbar (r269717)
  • Serialized aspect ratio with spaces around the slash (r268659)


  • Enabled static public class fields (r269922, r269939)
  • Enabled static and instance private class fields (r270066)
  • Implemented Intl.DateTimeFormat.formatRangeToParts (r269706)
  • Implemented Intl.ListFormat (r268956)
  • Aligned %TypedArray% behavior with recent spec adjustments (r269670)
  • Implemented @@species support in ArrayBuffer#slice (r269574)
  • Fixed toLocaleDateString() resolving incorrect date for some old dates (r269502)
  • Resurrected SharedArrayBuffer and Atomics behind a flag (JSC_useSharedArrayBuffer=1) (r269531)


  • Added wasm atomics instructions, partially behind a flag (JSC_useSharedArrayBuffer=1) (r270208)
  • Fixed opcodes for table.grow and table.size (r269790)
  • Implemented shared WebAssembly.Memory behind a flag (JSC_useSharedArrayBuffer=1) (r269940)
  • Implemented i32 sign-extension-ops (r269929)


  • Added proper garbage collection to ResizeObserver (r268860)
  • Changed Worklet.addModule() to reject promise with an AbortError when the network load fails (r270033)
  • Changed event targets to be cleared after dispatch if the target pointed to a shadow tree (r269546)
  • Changed WebSocket constructor to not throw when the port is blocked (r269459)
  • Fixed toggling dark mode to update the scrollbar appearance in overflow: scroll elements (r269437)
  • Fixed navigator.clipboard to be exposed on *.localhost pages (r269960)
  • Fixed auto-focus of text input to not select text (r269587)
  • Fixed Canvas drawImage to not raise an IndexSizeError on empty sources (r270126)
  • Fixed getIndexedParameter indexing crash (r270160)
  • Fixed text getting clobbered when assigning to input.defaultValue (r269528)
  • Fixed <input disabled> to fire click events after dispatchEvent (r269452)
  • Fixed the space between minute and meridiem fields in time inputs being too large (r270148)
  • Fixed window.event to not be affected by nodes moving post-dispatch (r269500)
  • Improved exception messages when AudioContext.suspend() / resume() promises are rejected (r268999)
  • Promises returned by our DOM API have the caller’s global instead of the callee’s (r269227)
  • Removed unneeded whitespace between content and <br> (r268958, r269036)

Speech Recognition

  • Added audio capture for SpeechRecognition (r270158)
  • Added a default action for SpeechRecognition permission request (r269918)
  • Implemented basic permission check for SpeechRecognition (r269810)


  • Added WebRTC SFrame transform (r269830)
  • Added infrastructure for WebRTC transforms (r269764)
  • Added support for RTCPeerConnection.onicecandidateerror event (r270101)
  • Added support for RTCRtpScriptTransform (r270107)
  • Added support for VP9 Profile 2 (10-bit color) in WebRTC (r268971)
  • Increased camera failing timer to 30 seconds (r269190)


  • A video element may fail to enter picture-in-picture from fullscreen (r268816)
  • Added handling trackId changes across Initialization Segments in MSE (r269121)
  • Added addOutput() and removeOutput() utility functions to AudioSummingJunction (r268820)
  • Added skeleton implementation of Media Session API (r268735)
  • Changed to ensure WebAudio API throws exceptions with useful error messages (r268812)
  • Changed AudioBuffer channels to be neuterable and detachable (r269108)
  • Fixed an infinite loop in sample eviction when duration is NaN in MSE (r270106)
  • Fixed Web Audio continuing to play when navigating off the web page via an iframe (r268893)
  • Fixed poor resampling quality when using AudioContext sampleRate parameter (r270141, r270157)
  • Fixed AudioBuffer.getChannelData(x) to keep returning the same JavaScript wrapper for a given channel (r269081)
  • Fixed AudioContext.suspend() to not reject promise when the audio session is interrupted (r269039)
  • Fixed transparent video poster image to keep element transparent once the first frame is preloaded (r269407)
  • Fixed fetching an audio worklet module using a data URL (r270046)
  • Improved the speed of audio and video element creation up to 50x faster (r269077)

Web Animations

  • Ensured animation updates are not scheduled when there are no styles to update (r269963)
  • Fixed KeyframeEffect.pseudoElement to return a valid string when targeting ::marker or ::first-letter (r269623)
  • Fixed accelerated animations of individual transform properties to apply rotate before scale (r269527)


  • Changed programmatic scroll to stop rubberbanding (r269373, r269559)
  • Changed to update scrolling geometry immediately for programmatic scrolls (r269558)

Scroll Snap

  • Fixed scroll snap specified on :root (r269506)
  • Fixed scroll-snap on root aligning to the body margin edge, not the viewport edge (r269622)
  • Made axis in scroll-snap-type required (r268665)
  • Made scroll-margin independent of scroll snapping and applied it when scrolling to anchors (r269144)
  • Made scroll-padding independent of scroll-snap and have it affect scrollIntoView (r270023)
  • Stopped creating implicit snap points at scrollmin and scrollmax (r268856)

Private Click Measurement

  • Added persistence for pending ad clicks and attributions so they survive browser restart (r270136)
  • Changed to accept ad click data when the link opens a new window (r269129)
  • Changed attribute and JSON key names according to the W3C conversation (r269886)
  • Switched to JSON report format (r269489)

Web Driver

  • Added handling for surrogate pairs in keyboard actions (r269421)
  • Added support for a sequence of character key presses (r269035)
  • Added handling HTTPS configuration for WebDriver tests (r268723)
  • Fixed elements in Shadow DOM incorrectly marked as stale (r268867)

December 10, 2020 09:15 PM

November 29, 2020

Philippe Normand: Catching up on WebKit GStreamer WebAudio backends maintenance

Igalia WebKit

Over the past few months the WebKit development team has been working on modernizing support for the WebAudio specification. This post highlights some of the changes that were recently merged, focusing on the GStreamer ports.

My fellow WebKit colleague, Chris Dumez, has been very active lately, updating the WebAudio implementation …

By Philippe Normand at November 29, 2020 12:45 PM

November 26, 2020

Víctor Jáquez: Notes on using Emacs (LSP/ccls) for WebKit

Igalia WebKit

I used to regard myself as an austere programmer in terms of tooling: Emacs —with a plain configuration— and grep. This approach forces you to understand all the elements involved in a project.

Some time ago I have to code in Rust, so I needed to learn the language as fast as possible. I looked for packages in MELPA that could help me to be productive quickly. Obviously, I installed rust-mode, but I also found racer for auto-completion. I tried it out. It was messy to setup and unstable, but it helped me to code while learning. When I felt comfortable with the base code, I uninstalled it.

This year I returned to work on WebKit. The last time I contributed to it was around five years ago, but now in a different area (still in the multimedia stack). WebKit is huge, and because of C++, I found gtags rather limited. Out of curiosity I looked for something similar to racer but for C++. And I spent a while digging on it.

The solution consists in the integration of three MELPA packages:

  • lsp-mode: a client for Language Server Protocol for Emacs.
  • company-mode: a text completion framework.
  • ccls: A C/C++ language server. Besides emacs-ccls adds more functionality to lsp-mode.

(I known, there’s a simpler alternative to lsp-mode, but I haven’t tried it yet).

First we might explain what’s LSP. It stands for Language Server Protocol, defined with JSON-RPC messages, between the editor and the language server. It was orginally developed by Microsoft for Visual Studio, which purpose is to support auto-completion, finding symbol’s definition, to show early error markers, etc., inside the editor. Therefore, lsp-mode is an Emacs mode that communicates with different language servers in LSP and operates in Emacs accordingly.

In order to support the auto-completion use-case lsp-mode uses the company-mode. This Emacs mode is capable to create a floating context menu where the editing cursor is placed.

The third part of the puzzle is, of course, the language server. There’s a language servers for different programming languages. For C & C++ there are two servers: clangd and ccls. The former uses Clang compiler, the last can use either Clang, GCC or MSVC. Along this text ccls will be used for reasons exposed later. In between, emacs-ccls leverages and extends the support of ccls in lsp-mode, though it’s not mandatory.

In short, the basic .emacs configuration, using use-package, would have these lines:

(use-package company
  :config (global-company-mode 1))

(use-package lsp-mode
  :diminish "L"
  :init (setq lsp-keymap-prefix "C-l"
              lsp-enable-file-watchers nil
              lsp-enable-on-type-formatting nil
              lsp-enable-snippet nil)
  :hook (c-mode-common . lsp-deferred)
  :commands (lsp lsp-deferred))

(use-package ccls
  :init (setq ccls-sem-highlight-method 'font-lock)
  :hook ((c-mode c++-mode objc-mode) . (lambda () (require 'ccls) (lsp-deferred))))

The snippet first configures company-mode. It is enabled globally because, normally, it is a nice feature to have, even in non-coding buffers, such as this very one, for writing a blog post in markdown format. Diminish mode hides or abbreviates the mode description in the Emacs’ mode line.

Later comes lsp-mode. It’s big and aims to do a lot of things, basically we have to tell it to disable certain features, such as file watcher, something not viable in massive projects as WebKit; as I don’t use snippet (generic text templates), I also disable it; and finally, lsp-mode tries to format the code at typing, I don’t know how the code style is figured out, but in my experience, it’s always detected wrong, so I disabled it too. Finally, lsp-mode is launched when a text uses the c-mode-common, shared by c++-mode too. lsp-mode is launched deferred, meaning it’ll startup until the buffer is visible; this is important since we might want to delay ccls session creation until the buffer’s .dir-locals.el file is processed, where it is configured for the specific project.

And lastly, ccls-mode configuration, hooked until c-mode or c++-mode are loaded up in a deferred fashion (already explained).

It’s important to understand how ccls works in order to integrate it in our workflow of a specific project, since it might need to be configured using Emacs’ per-directory local variales.

We are living in a post-Makefile world (almost), proof of that is ccls, which instead of a makefile, it uses a compilation database, a record of the compile options used to build the files in a project. It’s commonly described in JSON and it’s generated automatically by build systems such as meson or cmake, and later consumed by ninja or ccls to execute the compilation. Bear in mind that ccls uses a cache, which can eat a couple gigabytes of disk.

Now, let’s review the concrete details of using these features with WebKit. Let me assume that WebKit local repository is cloned in ~/WebKit.

As you may know, the cool way to compile WebKit is with flatpak. Flatpak adds an indirection in the compilation process, since it’s done in an isolated environment, above the native system. As a consequence, ccls has to be the one inside the Flatpak environment. In ~/.local/bin/webkit-ccls:

set -eu
cd $HOME/WebKit/
exec Tools/Scripts/webkit-flatpak -c ccls "$@"

Basically the scripts calls ccls inside flatpak, which is available in the SDK. And this is why ccls instead of clang, since clang is not provided.

By default ccls assumes the compilation database is in the project’s root directory, but in our case, it’s not, thus it is required to configure the database directory for our WebKit setup. For it, as we already said, a .dir-locals.el file is used.

  (indent-tabs-mode . nil)
  (c-basic-offset . 4))
  (indent-tabs-mode . nil)
  (c-basic-offset . 4))
  (indent-tabs-mode . nil)
  (c-basic-offset . 4))
  (indent-tabs-mode . nil))
  (fill-column . 100)
  (ccls-executable . "/home/vjaquez/.local/bin/webkit-ccls")
  (ccls-initialization-options . (:compilationDatabaseDirectory "/app/webkit/WebKitBuild/Release"
                                  :cache (:directory ".ccls-cache")))
  (compile-command . "build-webkit --gtk --debug")))

As you can notice, ccls-execute is defined here, though it’s not a safe local variable. Also the ccls-initialization-options, which is a safe local variable. It is important to notice that the compilation database directory is a path inside flatpak, and always use the Release path. I don’t understand why, but Debug path didn’t work for me. This mean that WebKit should be compiled as Release frequently, even if we only use Debug type for coding (as you may see in my compile-command).

Update: Now we can explain why it’s important to configure lsp-mode as deferred: to avoid connections to ccls before processing the .dir-locals.el file.

And that’s all. Now I have early programming errors detection, auto-completion, and so on. I hope you find these notes helpful.

Update: Sadly, because of flatpak indirection, symbols’ definition finding won’t work because the file paths stored in ccls cache are relative to flatpak’s file system. For that I still rely on global and its Emacs mode.

By vjaquez at November 26, 2020 04:20 PM

November 23, 2020

MediaRecorder API

Surfin’ Safari

Safari Technology Preview 105 and Safari in the latest iOS 14.3 beta enabled support for the MediaRecorder API by default. This API takes as input live audio/video content to produce compressed media. While the immediate use case is to record from the camera and/or microphone, this API can take any MediaStreamTrack as input, be it a capture track, coming from the network using WebRTC, or generated from HTML (Canvas, WebAudio), as illustrated in the chart below.

The generated output, exposed as blobs, can be readily rendered in a video element to preview the content, edit it, and/or upload to servers for sharing with others.

This API can be feature-detected, as can the set of supported file/container formats and audio/video codecs. Safari currently supports the MP4 file format with H.264 as video codec and AAC as audio codec. MediaRecorder support can be checked as follows:

function supportsRecording(mimeType)
    if (!window.MediaRecorder)
        return false;
    if (!MediaRecorder.isTypeSupported)
        return mimeType.startsWith("audio/mp4") || mimeType.startsWith("video/mp4");
    return MediaRecorder.isTypeSupported(mimeType);

The following example shows how camera and microphone can be recorded as mp4 content and locally previewed on the same page.

<button onclick="startRecording()">start</button><br>
<button onclick="endRecording()">end</button>
<video id="video" autoplay playsInline muted></video>
let blobs = [];
let stream;
let mediaRecorder;
async function startRecording()
    stream = await navigator.mediaDevices.getUserMedia({ audio: true, video: true });
    mediaRecorder = new MediaRecorder(stream);
    mediaRecorder.ondataavailable = (event) => {
       // Let's append blobs for now, we could also upload them to the network.
       if (
    mediaRecorder.onstop = doPreview;
    // Let's receive 1 second blobs
function endRecording()
    // Let's stop capture and recording
    stream.getTracks().forEach(track => track.stop());
function doPreview()
    if (!blobs.length)
    // Let's concatenate blobs to preview the recorded content
    video.src = URL.createObjectURL(new Blob(blobs, { type: mediaRecorder.mimeType }));

Future work may extend the support to additional codecs as well as supporting options like video/audio bitrates.

getUserMedia in WKWebView

Speaking of Safari in latest iOS 14.3 beta and local capture, navigator.mediaDevices.getUserMedia can now be exposed to WKWebView applications. navigator.mediaDevices.getUserMedia is automatically exposed if the embedding application is able to natively capture either audio or video. Please refer to Apple documentation to meet these requirements. Access to camera and microphone is gated by a user prompt similar to Safari and SafariViewController prompts. We hope to extend WKWebView APIs to allow applications to further control their camera and microphone management in future releases.

We hope you will like these new features. As always, please let us know if you encounter any bugs (or if you have ideas for future enhancements) by filing bugs on

November 23, 2020 06:00 PM

November 20, 2020

Paulo Matos: A tour of the for..of implementation for 32bits JSC

Igalia WebKit

We look at the implementation of the for-of intrinsic in 32bit JSC (JavaScriptCore).


By Paulo Matos at November 20, 2020 02:00 PM

November 19, 2020

Release Notes for Safari Technology Preview 116

Surfin’ Safari

Safari Technology Preview Release 116 is now available for download for macOS Big Sur and macOS Catalina. If you already have Safari Technology Preview installed, you can update in the Software Update pane of System Preferences on macOS.

This release covers WebKit revisions 267959-268651.

Web Extensions

  • Added support for non-persistent background pages
  • Fixed browser.tabs.update() to accept calls without a tabId parameter
  • Fixed browser.tabs.update() to allow navigations to a URL with a custom scheme

Web Inspector

  • Sources
    • Added support for creating a local override from resources that failed to load (r267977)
    • Added a + to the Local Overrides section in the navigation sidebar to streamline creating custom local overrides (r267979)
    • Fixed issue where event breakpoints were not editable after being added (r267976)
    • Fixed issue where line-based JavaScript breakpoints were not added on reload (r268629)
    • Fixed issue where the Sources Tab had wrong icon when paused (r268427)

Web Audio API

  • Enabled AudioWorklet API by default (r268459)
  • Added implementation for AudioWorkletGlobalScope.registerProcessor() (r268103)
  • Added implementation for AudioWorkletGlobalScope‘s currentFrame, currentTime, and sampleRate attributes (r268076)
  • Changed to use AudioWorkletProcessor to process audio (r268365)
  • Changed calling AudioContext.resume() right after AudioContext.suspend() to be a no-op (r268368)
  • Changed AudioWorkletGlobalScope to perform a microtask checkpoint after each rendering quantum (r268369)
  • Fixed parameters argument for AudioWorkletProcessor.process() to be spec-compliant (r268414)


  • Enabled video capture by default on macOS (r268052)
  • Added support for MediaRecorder bitrate getters (r268363)
  • Added support for MediaRecorder pause and resume (r268130)
  • Added support for respecting enabled and muted tracks (r267987)
  • Added support for BlobEvent.timecode (r268136)
  • Fixed MediaRecorder .stop to not throw in Inactive state (r268477)
  • Made sure to fire the correct set of events in case MediaRecorder stream has track changes (r268119)


  • Added support for the individual transform properties translate, rotate, scale, including accelerated animation (r267985, r268627)
  • Fixed flex-grow property to be animatable (r268516)
  • Fixed CSS image-orientation: none to be ignored for cross-origin images (r268249)
  • CSS transform computed style should not reflect individual transform properties (r268263)
  • Added painting CSS highlights over images (r268487)
  • Fixed clip-path: path() ignoring page zooming (r268138)
  • Fixed background-clip: var(--a) invalidating -webkit-background-clip: text when --a: text (r268158)


  • Respect the font size when presenting the <select> dropdown when custom fonts are used (r268126)


  • Changed arguments.callee to become ThrowTypeError if the function has a complex-parameter-list (spec-term) (r268323)
  • Changed BigInt constructor to be constructible while it always throws an error (r268322)
  • Fixed Array.prototype.sort‘s sortBucketSort which accessed an array in an invalid way leading to incorrect results with indexed properties on the prototype chain (r268375)
  • Improved the essential internal methods for %TypedArray% to adhere to spec (r268640)


  • Removed the alg field from the attestation statement (r268602)


  • Fixed AirPlay menu not showing up when the AirPlay button is clicked (r268308)
  • Improved computation of default audio input and output devices (r268396)


  • Allowed passive mouse wheel event listeners to not force synchronous scrolling (r268476)
  • Implemented (r268228)
  • Updated FileReader.result to return null if it isn’t done yet (r268232)
  • Improved xhr.response conformance to the specification (r267959)

URL Parsing

  • Aligned URL setters to reasonable behaviors of other browsers (r268050)
  • Changed to parse “#” as a delimiter for fragment identifier in data URIs (r267995)
  • Changed to fail parsing URLs with hosts containing invalid punycode encodings (r267965)
  • Fixed UTF-8 encoding in URL parsing (r267963)

Storage Access API

  • Enabled per-page storage access scope (r267973)


  • Fixed accessibility on Presidential Executive Order pages (r268117, r268206)


  • Fixed WebDriver Input clear/value commands when the target is inside a Shadow DOM (r267978)

November 19, 2020 10:17 PM

November 16, 2020

New WebKit Features in Safari 14

Surfin’ Safari

With the release of Safari 14 for macOS Big Sur, iPadOS 14, iOS 14, and watchOS 7, WebKit brings significant improvements to performance and privacy along with a host of new features for web developers.

Take a look at all of the improvements WebKit is adding with the release of Safari 14.

Safari Web Extensions

This release brings support for Safari Web Extensions. They are a type of extension primarily built with JavaScript, HTML, and CSS packaged with native apps. This allows extension developers to maintain a single codebase that can be packaged for other browsers.

It also means developers with extensions for other browsers can easily bring their projects to Safari with a command-line tool. It jump-starts your development by converting your web extension into an Xcode project, ready to build and test. After testing, you can submit it to the App Store.

You can learn more about Safari’s web extension support by watching the “Meet Safari Web Extensions” session from WWDC 2020.

Webpage Translation

WebKit with Safari 14 on macOS Big Sur, iOS 14, and iPad OS 14 allows users to translate webpages between English, Spanish, Simplified Chinese, French, German, Russian, and Brazilian Portuguese. Safari automatically detects the language of webpages and offers translation based on the user’s Preferred Languages list.

Content authors can instruct Safari on the specific elements that should or should not be translated. Enable translation of element contents with an empty translate attribute or translate="yes", or disable with translate="no". It’s best to mark specific elements and avoid using the attribute on a single container for the entire document.

Performance Improvements

One area of focus in WebKit was on performance. Significant performance gains improve page load performance and page performance for developers. Loading a previously unvisited page is 13% faster, and loading recently visited pages is 42-52% faster. Tab closing performance improved from 3.5 seconds to 50 milliseconds. WebKit also added support for incrementally loading PDF files and now renders the first page up to 60× faster.

For web developers, WebKit improved asynchronous scrolling for iframes and overflow: scroll containers on macOS. Faster IndexedDB operations, for-of loops, JavaScript Promises, JavaScript cookie access, and JavaScript delete operations improve page performance for web developers and users.

WebKit and Safari can now use platform support for HTTP/3 for improved network efficiency and faster load times. HTTP/3 makes use of multiplexed connections over UDP to reduce congestion and transport latency. It all adds up to better perceived performance for your web apps.

For more details, see the “What’s new for web developers” session from WWDC 2020.

Improved Compatibility

Another area of focus was improving WebKit’s interoperability. One measure of that is passing Web Platform Tests. It’s a set of tests used by browser developers to ensure implementations are cross-browser compatible helping developers have more interoperable code. In these releases, WebKit improved the pass rates for over 140,000 tests across Service Workers, SVG, CSS, XHR+Fetch, and more.

Learn more by watching the “What’s new for web developers” session from WWDC 2020.

Privacy Updates

With each release, WebKit refines its privacy protections for users. This year WebKit enabled full third-party cookie blocking and added support for the Storage Access API in Private Browsing mode in Safari. In addition, Safari added a Privacy Report that shows users the trackers that Intelligent Tracking Prevention prevented from accessing identifying information.

Learn more about WebKit’s privacy enhancements in the “CNAME Cloaking and Bounce Tracking Defense” and “Full Third-Party Cookie Blocking and More” blog posts.

Touch ID and Face ID for the Web

Web developers can now support logging into websites with Face ID and Touch ID. New platform authenticator support in WebKit’s Web Authentication implementation provides a highly secure alternative to usernames and passwords. Support for WebAuthn was introduced in Safari 13 on macOS and iOS 13.3 with support for hardware security keys. New in this release is added support for PIN entry and account selection on external Web Authentication security keys.

For more, read the “Meet Face ID and Touch ID for the Web” blog post.

WebP Support

Improvements for media in WebKit include support for a new image format and new video playback capabilities. This release of WebKit in Safari 14 adds support for the WebP open-source image format. It offers content authors smaller file sizes for lossy and lossless formats with advanced features like alpha-channel transparency and animations.

Learn more about WebP support from the “What’s new for web developers” talk from WWDC 2020.

Reserving Layout Space for Images

Another image-related improvement eliminates layout shifting. It comes from a change to how WebKit derives the aspect ratio of an image. Web authors can simply add width and height attributes to an <img> element with a numeric value to tell WebKit the proportions of an image to reserve when calculating image size from CSS. It’s a simple change that significantly improves the user experience.

To see this in action watch the “What’s new for web developers” session from WWDC 2020.

New CSS Features

Safari 14 supports the image-orientation property in CSS to override WebKit’s default behavior of rotating based on image EXIF data. The default image-orientation: from-image can be set to image-orientation: none to override the behavior and ignore the EXIF orientation flag.

New support for the :is() pseudo-selector works as a synonym for the previously supported :matches(). It can be used to match a list of selectors with the specificity of the most specific selector.

It can be used to avoid repetitive selectors. Compare the following:

/* Removing margins from any subsequent headings */
h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6 {
    margin-top: 3em;

h1 + h2, h1 + h3, h1 + h4, h1 + h5, h1 + h6,
h2 + h3, h2 + h3, h2 + h4, h2 + h5, h2 + h6,
h3 + h4, h3 + h3, h3 + h4, h3 + h5, h3 + h6,
h4 + h5, h4 + h3, h4 + h4, h4 + h5, h4 + h6,
h5 + h6, h5 + h3, h5 + h4, h5 + h5, h5 + h6 {
    margin-top: 0;

The override could be written with the :is() pseudo-selector like this instead:

:is(h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6) + :is(h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6) {
    margin-top: 0;

The :where() pseudo-selector is also supported and works like :is() except it resets the specificity back to 0 making it easy to override complex matches.

Other notable CSS additions include support for line-break: anywhere to break long content before it overflows the container, and image-set() support for all other image functions including image(), -webkit-canvas(), -webkit-cross-fade(), and -webkit-*-gradient().

Learn more about these CSS features by watching the “What’s new for web developers” from WWDC 2020.

Media Enhancements

For video, Safari on iOS 14 adds support for the Picture-in-Picture API for iPhone. On macOS, new support for high-dynamic range (HDR) video playback is added. Content authors can use media-queries or the matchMedia method in JavaScript to detect high-dynamic range display capability and deliver a progressively enhanced experience for users with HDR displays.

    @media only screen (dynamic-range: high) {
        /* HDR-only CSS rules */

    if (window.matchMedia("dynamic-range: high")) {
        // HDR-specific JavaScript

You can learn more about these media enhancements by watching the “What’s new for web developers” from WWDC 2020.

JavaScript Improvements

Beyond performance improvements, WebKit added several new capabilities to its JavaScript engine. This release includes support for BigInt, a new datatype for integers that are larger than the MAX_SAFE_INTEGER.

let bigInt = BigInt(Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER) + 2n;

Three new types of logical assignment operators are available: AND, OR, and nullish. Using these operators only evaluates the left-hand side of an expression once and can be used non-destructively when assigning values.

let foo = null;

foo ??= 1; // nullish assignment operator
> 1

foo &&= 2; // AND assignment operator
> 2

foo ||= 3; // OR assignment operator
> 2

foo ??= 4; // nullish assignment operator
> 2

WebKit also introduces support for the optional chaining operator that gives you a shortcut for safely accessing object properties.

function optionalChaining(object) {
    return object?.foo;

function optionalChainingTranspiled(object) {
    if (object !== null && object !== undefined)
    return undefined;

There’s also added support of the EventTarget constructor which means developers can create custom instances of EventTarget of their own design without the overhead of repurposing a DOM element, giving non-DOM objects an interface for dispatching custom events.

You can learn more about JavaScript improvements by watching the “What’s new for web developers” from WWDC 2020.

Web Inspector Updates

Web Inspector in Safari 14 on macOS added the Source Tab combing the Resources Tab and Debugger Tab together. It lists all resources loaded by the inspected page since Web Inspector opened, along with XHR+Fetch resources and long-lived WebSockets. Web Inspector’s JavaScript debugging tools are here too, with all of the stepping and the breakpoint controls, organized in a more compact and unified way alongside the resources of the inspected page. The Sources Tab also offers new capabilities such as organizing by file path instead of file type, Local Overrides for completely replacing the content and headers of responses loaded over the network, and the Inspector Bootstrap Script to evaluate JavaScript before anything else in the page.

In the Timelines Tab is the new Media & Animations timeline to capture events related to media elements, CSS animations and CSS transitions. It makes it easy to correlate activity captured in other timelines to state changes in media elements, such as pausing or resuming playback, or CSS animations or transitions, such as when they’re created and each time they iterate.

Among the enhancements Web Inspector offers improved VoiceOver support and a new HSL color picker with Display-P3 color support.

You can learn more watching the “What’s new in Web Inspector” video session from WWDC 2020 or referring to the Web Inspector Reference documentation.


These improvements are available to users running watchOS 7, iOS 14 and iPadOS 14, macOS Big Sur, macOS Catalina and macOS Mojave. These features were also available to web developers with Safari Technology Preview releases. Changes in this release of Safari were included in the following Safari Technology Preview releases: 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109. Download the latest Safari Technology Preview release to stay on the forefront of future web platform and Web Inspector features. You can also use the WebKit Feature Status page to watch for changes to your favorite web platform features.

Send a tweet to @webkit or @jonathandavis to share your thoughts on this release. If you run into any issues, we welcome your bug reports for Safari, or WebKit bugs for web content issues.

November 16, 2020 05:00 PM

November 12, 2020

CNAME Cloaking and Bounce Tracking Defense

Surfin’ Safari

This blog post covers several enhancements to Intelligent Tracking Prevention (ITP) in Safari 14 on macOS Big Sur, Catalina, and Mojave, iOS 14, and iPadOS 14 to address our latest discoveries in the industry around tracking.

CNAME Cloaking Defense

ITP now caps the expiry of cookies set in so-called third-party CNAME-cloaked HTTP responses to 7 days. On macOS, this enhancement is specific to Big Sur.

What Is CNAME Cloaking?

In the eyes of web browsers, the first party of a website is typically defined by its registrable domain. This means that and are considered same-site and the same party. If the user loads a webpage from, and that page makes a subresource request to, that request will carry all cookies that are set to cover the blog.example site, including login cookies and user identity cookies. In addition, the response to that subresource request can set cookies for blog.example, and those cookies will be first-party cookies.

Enter CNAMEs. CNAME stands for canonical name record and maps one domain name to another as part of the Domain Name System, or DNS. This means a site owner can configure one of their subdomains, such as, to resolve to thirdParty.example, before resolving to an IP address. This happens underneath the web layer and is called CNAME cloaking — the thirdParty.example domain is cloaked as and thus has the same powers as the true first party.

CNAME Cloaking and Tracking

Cross-site trackers have convinced site owners to set up CNAME cloaking in order to circumvent tracking prevention, such as ITP’s 7-day expiry cap on cookies set in JavaScript. In our blog case, this would be making resolve to tracker.example.

A recent paper from researchers at the Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai) and the French National Cybersecurity Agency (ANSSI) found 1,762 websites CNAME cloaking 56 trackers in total.

CNAME Cloaking and Website Security

Site owners who set up CNAME cloaking risk full website takeovers or customer cookie hijacking if the CNAME records aren’t properly managed, for instance if CNAME cloaking isn’t decommissioned when no longer in use. It was recently reported that 250 websites of banks, healthcare companies, restaurant chains, and civil rights groups had been compromised through mismanaged CNAME cloaking. In June this year, Microsoft documented these attacks and how their cloud customers should prevent them.

ITP’s Defense Against CNAME Cloaking Tracking

ITP now detects third-party CNAME cloaking requests and caps the expiry of any cookies set in the HTTP response to 7 days. This cap is aligned with ITP’s expiry cap on all cookies created through JavaScript.

Third-party CNAME cloaking is defined as a first-party subresource that resolves through a CNAME that differs from the first-party domain and differs from the top frame host’s CNAME, if one exists. Yes, the whole site can be CNAME cloaked, when it uses so called edge servers.

The best way to explain this is through a table (1p means first-party, 3p means third-party):

1p host, e.g. 1p subdomain other than the 1p host, e.g. Capped cookie expiry?
No cloaking No cloaking No cap
No cloaking (1p cloaking) No cap
No cloaking tracker.example (3p cloaking) 7-day cap
abc123.edge.example (cloaking) No cloaking No cap
abc123.edge.example (cloaking) abc123.edge.example (matching cloaking) No cap
abc123.edge.example (cloaking) (1p cloaking) No cap
abc123.edge.example (cloaking) tracker.example (3p cloaking) 7-day cap

SameSite=Strict Cookie Jail for Bounce Trackers

In June 2018, we announced an update to ITP to detect and defend against first party bounce trackers. In March 2020, we announced an enhancement to also detect delayed bounce tracking. Since then, we have received a report of one specific website engaged in bounce tracking while also being likely to get frequent user interaction. To combat such issues, we proposed to the W3C Privacy Community Group what we call a SameSite=Strict jail as well as other escalations.

What the SameSite=strict jail does is detect bounce tracking and, at a certain threshold, rewrite all the tracking domain’s cookies to SameSite=strict. This means that they will not be sent in cross-site, first-party navigations, and they can no longer be used for simple redirect-based bounce tracking.

Our implementation is rather relaxed, with the threshold set to 10 unique navigational, first-party redirects (unique in the sense of going to unique domains), and an automatic reset of that counter once the cookies are rewritten to SameSite=strict. This automatically gives the domain a new chance so that they can disengage in bounce tracking and “get out of jail.”

Our current list of domains we subject to this protection is empty because the domain reported to us has stopped their bounce tracking. But this protection remains in our toolbox.

Partitioned Ephemeral IndexedDB

Up until now, WebKit has blocked cross-origin IndexedDB. WebKit now allows partitioned and ephemeral third-party IndexedDB in an effort to align with other browsers now that they are interested in storage partitioning too. You can partake in the ongoing standardization effort for storage partitioning on GitHub.

Partitioned means unique IndexedDB instance per first-party site and ephemeral means in-memory-only, i.e. goes away on browser quit.

Third-Party Cookie Blocking and Storage Access API In Private Browsing

Private Browsing in Safari is based on WebKit’s ephemeral sessions where nothing is persisted to disk. This means ITP would not be able to learn things between launches of Safari. Further, Private Browsing also uses a separate ephemeral session for each new tab the user opens. To uphold this separation between tabs, ITP wouldn’t be able to classify cross-site trackers from the user’s full browsing even in-memory.

However, full third-party cookie blocking doesn’t need classification and is now enabled by default in Private Browsing. This might seem simple to support but the challenge was to make the Storage Access API work with the aforementioned tab separation. This is how it works: Say identityProvider.example wants to request storage access as third-party on the login page for social.example in Tab A. Interacting with identityProvider.example as a first party website in Tab B will not suffice to allow it to request storage access in Tab A since that would leak state between the separate ephemeral sessions. Thus, the user must interact with identityProvider.example in the same tab as where identityProvider.example later requests storage access as third-party. This makes sure that login flows where two different parties are involved and third-party cookie access is required, is possible in Private Browsing mode.

Home Screen Web Application Domain Exempt From ITP

Back in March 2020, when we announced ITP’s 7-day cap on all script-writeable storage, developers asked about home screen web applications and whether they were exempt from this 7-day cap. We explained how ITP’s counter of “days of use” and capture of user interaction effectively made sure that the first party of home screen web applications would not be subjected to the new 7-day cap. To make this more clear, we have implemented an explicit exception for the first-party domain of home screen web applications to make sure ITP always skips that domain in its website data removal algorithm.

In addition, the website data of home screen web applications is kept isolated from Safari and thus will not be affected by ITP’s classification of tracking behavior in Safari.

Thanks To My Coworkers

The above updates to WebKit and ITP would not have been possible without the help from Kate, Jiten, Scott, Tommy, Sihui, and David. Thank you!

November 12, 2020 06:30 PM

October 29, 2020

Claudio Saavedra: Thu 2020/Oct/29

Igalia WebKit

In this line of work, we all stumble at least once upon a problem that turns out to be extremely elusive and very tricky to narrow down and solve. If we&aposre lucky, we might have everything at our disposal to diagnose the problem but sometimes that&aposs not the case – and in embedded development it&aposs often not the case. Add to the mix proprietary drivers, lack of debugging symbols, a bug that&aposs very hard to reproduce under a controlled environment, and weeks in partial confinement due to a pandemic and what you have is better described as a very long lucid nightmare. Thankfully, even the worst of nightmares end when morning comes, even if sometimes morning might be several days away. And when the fix to the problem is in an inimaginable place, the story is definitely one worth telling.

The problem

It all started with one of Igalia&aposs customers deploying a WPE WebKit-based browser in their embedded devices. Their CI infrastructure had detected a problem caused when the browser was tasked with creating a new webview (in layman terms, you can imagine that to be the same as opening a new tab in your browser). Occasionally, this view would never load, causing ongoing tests to fail. For some reason, the test failure had a reproducibility of ~75% in the CI environment, but during manual testing it would occur with less than a 1% of probability. For reasons that are beyond the scope of this post, the CI infrastructure was not reachable in a way that would allow to have access to running processes in order to diagnose the problem more easily. So with only logs at hand and less than a 1/100 chances of reproducing the bug myself, I set to debug this problem locally.


The first that became evident was that, whenever this bug would occur, the WebKit feature known as web extension (an application-specific loadable module that is used to allow the program to have access to the internals of a web page, as well to enable customizable communication with the process where the page contents are loaded – the web process) wouldn&apost work. The browser would be forever waiting that the web extension loads, and since that wouldn&apost happen, the expected page wouldn&apost load. The first place to look into then is the web process and to try to understand what is preventing the web extension from loading. Enter here, our good friend GDB, with less than spectacular results thanks to stripped libraries.

#0  0x7500ab9c in poll () from target:/lib/
#1  0x73c08c0c in ?? () from target:/usr/lib/
#2  0x73c08d2c in ?? () from target:/usr/lib/
#3  0x73c08e0c in ?? () from target:/usr/lib/
#4  0x73bold6a8 in ?? () from target:/usr/lib/
#5  0x75f84208 in ?? () from target:/usr/lib/
#6  0x75fa0b7e in ?? () from target:/usr/lib/
#7  0x7561eda2 in ?? () from target:/usr/lib/
#8  0x755a176a in ?? () from target:/usr/lib/
#9  0x753cd842 in ?? () from target:/usr/lib/
#10 0x75451660 in ?? () from target:/usr/lib/
#11 0x75452882 in ?? () from target:/usr/lib/
#12 0x75452fa8 in ?? () from target:/usr/lib/
#13 0x76b1de62 in ?? () from target:/usr/lib/
#14 0x76b5a970 in ?? () from target:/usr/lib/
#15 0x74bee44c in g_main_context_dispatch () from target:/usr/lib/
#16 0x74bee808 in ?? () from target:/usr/lib/
#17 0x74beeba8 in g_main_loop_run () from target:/usr/lib/
#18 0x76b5b11c in ?? () from target:/usr/lib/
#19 0x75622338 in ?? () from target:/usr/lib/
#20 0x74f59b58 in __libc_start_main () from target:/lib/
#21 0x0045d8d0 in _start ()

From all threads in the web process, after much tinkering around it slowly became clear that one of the places to look into is that poll() call. I will spare you the details related to what other threads were doing, suffice to say that whenever the browser would hit the bug, there was a similar stacktrace in one thread, going through libEGL to a call to poll() on top of the stack, that would never return. Unfortunately, a stripped EGL driver coming from a proprietary graphics vendor was a bit of a showstopper, as it was the inability to have proper debugging symbols running inside the device (did you know that a non-stripped WebKit library binary with debugging symbols can easily get GDB and your device out of memory?). The best one could do to improve that was to use the gcore feature in GDB, and extract a core from the device for post-mortem analysis. But for some reason, such a stacktrace wouldn&apost give anything interesting below the poll() call to understand what&aposs being polled here. Did I say this was tricky?

What polls?

Because WebKit is a multiprocess web engine, having system calls that signal, read, and write in sockets communicating with other processes is an everyday thing. Not knowing what a poll() call is doing and who is it that it&aposs trying to listen to, not very good. Because the call is happening under the EGL library, one can presume that it&aposs graphics related, but there are still different possibilities, so trying to find out what is this polling is a good idea.

A trick I learned while debugging this is that, in absence of debugging symbols that would give a straightforward look into variables and parameters, one can examine the CPU registers and try to figure out from them what the parameters to function calls are. Let&aposs do that with poll(). First, its signature.

int poll(struct pollfd *fds, nfds_t nfds, int timeout);

Now, let's examine the registers.

(gdb) f 0
#0  0x7500ab9c in poll () from target:/lib/
(gdb) info registers
r0             0x7ea55e58	2124766808
r1             0x1	1
r2             0x64	100
r3             0x0	0
r4             0x0	0

Registers r0, r1, and r2 contain poll()&aposs three parameters. Because r1 is 1, we know that there is only one file descriptor being polled. fds is a pointer to an array with one element then. Where is that first element? Well, right there, in the memory pointed to directly by r0. What does struct pollfd look like?

struct pollfd {
  int   fd;         /* file descriptor */
  short events;     /* requested events */
  short revents;    /* returned events */

What we are interested in here is the contents of fd, the file descriptor that is being polled. Memory alignment is again in our side, we don&apost need any pointer arithmetic here. We can inspect directly the register r0 and find out what the value of fd is.

(gdb) print *0x7ea55e58
$3 = 8

So we now know that the EGL library is polling the file descriptor with an identifier of 8. But where is this file descriptor coming from? What is on the other end? The /proc file system can be helpful here.

# pidof WPEWebProcess
1944 1196
# ls -lh /proc/1944/fd/8
lrwx------    1 x x      64 Oct 22 13:59 /proc/1944/fd/8 -> socket:[32166]

So we have a socket. What else can we find out about it? Turns out, not much without the unix_diag kernel module, which was not available in our device. But we are slowly getting closer. Time to call another good friend.

Where GDB fails, printf() triumphs

Something I have learned from many years working with a project as large as WebKit, is that debugging symbols can be very difficult to work with. To begin with, it takes ages to build WebKit with them. When cross-compiling, it&aposs even worse. And then, very often the target device doesn&apost even have enough memory to load the symbols when debugging. So they can be pretty useless. It&aposs then when just using fprintf() and logging useful information can simplify things. Since we know that it&aposs at some point during initialization of the web process that we end up stuck, and we also know that we&aposre polling a file descriptor, let&aposs find some early calls in the code of the web process and add some fprintf() calls with a bit of information, specially in those that might have something to do with EGL. What can we find out now?

Oct 19 10:13:27.700335 WPEWebProcess[92]: Starting
Oct 19 10:13:27.720575 WPEWebProcess[92]: Initializing WebProcess platform.
Oct 19 10:13:27.727850 WPEWebProcess[92]: wpe_loader_init() done.
Oct 19 10:13:27.729054 WPEWebProcess[92]: Initializing PlatformDisplayLibWPE (hostFD: 8).
Oct 19 10:13:27.730166 WPEWebProcess[92]: egl backend created.
Oct 19 10:13:27.741556 WPEWebProcess[92]: got native display.
Oct 19 10:13:27.742565 WPEWebProcess[92]: initializeEGLDisplay() starting.

Two interesting findings from the fprintf()-powered logging here: first, it seems that file descriptor 8 is one known to libwpe (the general-purpose library that powers the WPE WebKit port). Second, that the last EGL API call right before the web process hangs on poll() is a call to eglInitialize(). fprintf(), thanks for your service.

Number 8

We now know that the file descriptor 8 is coming from WPE and is not internal to the EGL library. libwpe gets this file descriptor from the UI process, as one of the many creation parameters that are passed via IPC to the nascent process in order to initialize it. Turns out that this file descriptor in particular, the so-called host client file descriptor, is the one that the freedesktop backend of libWPE, from here onwards WPEBackend-fdo, creates when a new client is set to connect to its Wayland display. In a nutshell, in presence of a new client, a Wayland display is supposed to create a pair of connected sockets, create a new client on the Display-side, give it one of the file descriptors, and pass the other one to the client process. Because this will be useful later on, let&aposs see how is that currently implemented in WPEBackend-fdo.

    int pair[2];
    if (socketpair(AF_UNIX, SOCK_STREAM | SOCK_CLOEXEC, 0, pair)  0)
        return -1;

    int clientFd = dup(pair[1]);

    wl_client_create(m_display, pair[0]);

The file descriptor we are tracking down is the client file descriptor, clientFd. So we now know what&aposs going on in this socket: Wayland-specific communication. Let&aposs enable Wayland debugging next, by running all relevant process with WAYLAND_DEBUG=1. We&aposll get back to that code fragment later on.

A Heisenbug is a Heisenbug is a Heisenbug

Turns out that enabling Wayland debugging output for a few processes is enough to alter the state of the system in such a way that the bug does not happen at all when doing manual testing. Thankfully the CI&aposs reproducibility is much higher, so after waiting overnight for the CI to continuously run until it hit the bug, we have logs. What do the logs say?

WPEWebProcess[41]: initializeEGLDisplay() starting.
  -> wl_display@1.get_registry(new id wl_registry@2)
  -> wl_display@1.sync(new id wl_callback@3)

So the EGL library is trying to fetch the Wayland registry and it&aposs doing a wl_display_sync() call afterwards, which will block until the server responds. That&aposs where the blocking poll() call comes from. So, it turns out, the problem is not necessarily on this end of the Wayland socket, but perhaps on the other side, that is, in the so-called UI process (the main browser process). Why is the Wayland display not replying?

The loop

Something that is worth mentioning before we move on is how the WPEBackend-fdo Wayland display integrates with the system. This display is a nested display, with each web view a client, while it is itself a client of the system&aposs Wayland display. This can be a bit confusing if you&aposre not very familiar with how Wayland works, but fortunately there is good documentation about Wayland elsewhere.

The way that the Wayland display in the UI process of a WPEWebKit browser is integrated with the rest of the program, when it uses WPEBackend-fdo, is through the GLib main event loop. Wayland itself has an event loop implementation for servers, but for a GLib-powered application it can be useful to use GLib&aposs and integrate Wayland&aposs event processing with the different stages of the GLib main loop. That is precisely how WPEBackend-fdo is handling its clients&apos events. As discussed earlier, when a new client is created a pair of connected sockets are created and one end is given to Wayland to control communication with the client. GSourceFunc functions are used to integrate Wayland with the application main loop. In these functions, we make sure that whenever there are pending messages to be sent to clients, those are sent, and whenever any of the client sockets has pending data to be read, Wayland reads from them, and to dispatch the events that might be necessary in response to the incoming data. And here is where things start getting really strange, because after doing a bit of fprintf()-powered debugging inside the Wayland-GSourceFuncs functions, it became clear that the Wayland events from the clients were never dispatched, because the dispatch() GSourceFunc was not being called, as if there was nothing coming from any Wayland client. But how is that possible, if we already know that the web process client is actually trying to get the Wayland registry?

To move forward, one needs to understand how the GLib main loop works, in particular, with Unix file descriptor sources. A very brief summary of this is that, during an iteration of the main loop, GLib will poll file descriptors to see if there are any interesting events to be reported back to their respective sources, in which case the sources will decide whether to trigger the dispatch() phase. A simple source might decide in its dispatch() method to directly read or write from/to the file descriptor; a Wayland display source (as in our case), will call wl_event_loop_dispatch() to do this for us. However, if the source doesn&apost find any interesting events, or if the source decides that it doesn&apost want to handle them, the dispatch() invocation will not happen. More on the GLib main event loop in its API documentation.

So it seems that for some reason the dispatch() method is not being called. Does that mean that there are no interesting events to read from? Let&aposs find out.

System call tracing

Here we resort to another helpful tool, strace. With strace we can try to figure out what is happening when the main loop polls file descriptors. The strace output is huge (because it takes easily over a hundred attempts to reproduce this), but we know already some of the calls that involve file descriptors from the code we looked at above, when the client is created. So we can use those calls as a starting point in when searching through the several MBs of logs. Fast-forward to the relevant logs.

socketpair(AF_UNIX, SOCK_STREAM|SOCK_CLOEXEC, 0, [128, 130]) = 0
dup(130)               = 131
close(130)             = 0
fcntl64(128, F_DUPFD_CLOEXEC, 0) = 130
epoll_ctl(34, EPOLL_CTL_ADD, 130, {EPOLLIN, {u32=1639599928, u64=1639599928}}) = 0

What we see there is, first, WPEBackend-fdo creating a new socket pair (128, 130) and then, when file descriptor 130 is passed to wl_client_create() to create a new client, Wayland adds that file descriptor to its epoll() instance for monitoring clients, which is referred to by file descriptor 34. This way, whenever there are events in file descriptor 130, we will hear about them in file descriptor 34.

So what we would expect to see next is that, after the web process is spawned, when a Wayland client is created using the passed file descriptor and the EGL driver requests the Wayland registry from the display, there should be a POLLIN event coming in file descriptor 34 and, if the dispatch() call for the source was called, a epoll_wait() call on it, as that is what wl_event_loop_dispatch() would do when called from the source&aposs dispatch() method. But what do we have instead?

poll([{fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=34, events=POLLIN}, {fd=59, events=POLLIN}, {fd=110, events=POLLIN}, {fd=114, events=POLLIN}, {fd=132, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 1 ([{fd=34, revents=POLLIN}])
recvmsg(30, {msg_namelen=0}, MSG_DONTWAIT|MSG_CMSG_CLOEXEC) = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)

strace can be a bit cryptic, so let&aposs explain those two function calls. The first one is a poll in a series of file descriptors (including 30 and 34) for POLLIN events. The return value of that call tells us that there is a POLLIN event in file descriptor 34 (the Wayland display epoll() instance for clients). But unintuitively, the call right after is trying to read a message from socket 30 instead, which we know doesn&apost have any pending data at the moment, and consequently returns an error value with an errno of EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable).

Why is the GLib main loop triggering a read from 30 instead of 34? And who is 30?

We can answer the latter question first. Breaking on a running UI process instance at the right time shows who is reading from the file descriptor 30:

#1  0x70ae1394 in wl_os_recvmsg_cloexec (sockfd=30, msg=msg@entry=0x700fea54, flags=flags@entry=64)
#2  0x70adf644 in wl_connection_read (connection=0x6f70b7e8)
#3  0x70ade70c in read_events (display=0x6f709c90)
#4  wl_display_read_events (display=0x6f709c90)
#5  0x70277d98 in pwl_source_check (source=0x6f71cb80)
#6  0x743f2140 in g_main_context_check (context=context@entry=0x2111978, max_priority=, fds=fds@entry=0x6165f718, n_fds=n_fds@entry=4)
#7  0x743f277c in g_main_context_iterate (context=0x2111978, block=block@entry=1, dispatch=dispatch@entry=1, self=)
#8  0x743f2ba8 in g_main_loop_run (loop=0x20ece40)
#9  0x00537b38 in ?? ()

So it&aposs also Wayland, but on a different level. This is the Wayland client source (remember that the browser is also a Wayland client?), which is installed by cog (a thin browser layer on top of WPE WebKit that makes writing browsers easier to do) to process, among others, input events coming from the parent Wayland display. Looking at the cog code, we can see that the wl_display_read_events() call happens only if GLib reports that there is a G_IO_IN (POLLIN) event in its file descriptor, but we already know that this is not the case, as per the strace output. So at this point we know that there are two things here that are not right:

  1. A FD source with a G_IO_IN condition is not being dispatched.
  2. A FD source without a G_IO_IN condition is being dispatched.

Someone here is not telling the truth, and as a result the main loop is dispatching the wrong sources.

The loop (part II)

It is at this point that it would be a good idea to look at what exactly the GLib main loop is doing internally in each of its stages and how it tracks the sources and file descriptors that are polled and that need to be processed. Fortunately, debugging symbols for GLib are very small, so debugging this step by step inside the device is rather easy.

Let&aposs look at how the main loop decides which sources to dispatch, since for some reason it&aposs dispatching the wrong ones. Dispatching happens in the g_main_dispatch() method. This method goes over a list of pending source dispatches and after a few checks and setting the stage, the dispatch method for the source gets called. How is a source set as having a pending dispatch? This happens in g_main_context_check(), where the main loop checks the results of the polling done in this iteration and runs the check() method for sources that are not ready yet so that they can decide whether they are ready to be dispatched or not. Breaking into the Wayland display source, I know that the check() method is called. How does this method decide to be dispatched or not?

    [](GSource* base) -> gboolean
        auto& source = *reinterpret_cast(base);
        return !!source.pfd.revents;

In this lambda function we&aposre returning TRUE or FALSE, depending on whether the revents field in the GPollFD structure have been filled during the polling stage of this iteration of the loop. A return value of TRUE indicates the main loop that we want our source to be dispatched. From the strace output, we know that there is a POLLIN (or G_IO_IN) condition, but we also know that the main loop is not dispatching it. So let&aposs look at what&aposs in this GPollFD structure.

For this, let&aposs go back to g_main_context_check() and inspect the array of GPollFD structures that it received when called. What do we find?

(gdb) print *fds
$35 = {fd = 30, events = 1, revents = 0}
(gdb) print *(fds+1)
$36 = {fd = 34, events = 1, revents = 1}

That&aposs the result of the poll() call! So far so good. Now the method is supposed to update the polling records it keeps and it uses when calling each of the sources check() functions. What do these records hold?

(gdb) print *pollrec->fd
$45 = {fd = 19, events = 1, revents = 0}
(gdb) print *(pollrec->next->fd)
$47 = {fd = 30, events = 25, revents = 1}
(gdb) print *(pollrec->next->next->fd)
$49 = {fd = 34, events = 25, revents = 0}

We&aposre not interested in the first record quite yet, but clearly there&aposs something odd here. The polling records are showing a different value in the revent fields for both 30 and 34. Are these records updated correctly? Let&aposs look at the algorithm that is doing this update, because it will be relevant later on.

  pollrec = context->poll_records;
  i = 0;
  while (pollrec && i  n_fds)
      while (pollrec && pollrec->fd->fd == fds[i].fd)
          if (pollrec->priority = max_priority)
              pollrec->fd->revents =
                fds[i].revents & (pollrec->fd->events | G_IO_ERR | G_IO_HUP | G_IO_NVAL);
          pollrec = pollrec->next;


In simple words, what this algorithm is doing is to traverse simultaneously the polling records and the GPollFD array, updating the polling records revents with the results of polling. From reading how the pollrec linked list is built internally, it&aposs possible to see that it&aposs purposely sorted by increasing file descriptor identifier value. So the first item in the list will have the record for the lowest file descriptor identifier, and so on. The GPollFD array is also built in this way, allowing for a nice optimization: if more than one polling record – that is, more than one polling source – needs to poll the same file descriptor, this can be done at once. This is why this otherwise O(n^2) nested loop can actually be reduced to linear time.

One thing stands out here though: the linked list is only advanced when we find a match. Does this mean that we always have a match between polling records and the file descriptors that have just been polled? To answer that question we need to check how is the array of GPollFD structures filled. This is done in g_main_context_query(), as we hinted before. I&aposll spare you the details, and just focus on what seems relevant here: when is a poll record not used to fill a GPollFD?

  n_poll = 0;
  lastpollrec = NULL;
  for (pollrec = context->poll_records; pollrec; pollrec = pollrec->next)
      if (pollrec->priority > max_priority)

Interesting! If a polling record belongs to a source whose priority is lower than the maximum priority that the current iteration is going to process, the polling record is skipped. Why is this?

In simple terms, this happens because each iteration of the main loop finds out the highest priority between the sources that are ready in the prepare() stage, before polling, and then only those file descriptor sources with at least such a a priority are polled. The idea behind this is to make sure that high-priority sources are processed first, and that no file descriptor sources with lower priority are polled in vain, as they shouldn&apost be dispatched in the current iteration.

GDB tells me that the maximum priority in this iteration is -60. From an earlier GDB output, we also know that there&aposs a source for a file descriptor 19 with a priority 0.

(gdb) print *pollrec
$44 = {fd = 0x7369c8, prev = 0x0, next = 0x6f701560, priority = 0}
(gdb) print *pollrec->fd
$45 = {fd = 19, events = 1, revents = 0}

Since 19 is lower than 30 and 34, we know that this record is before theirs in the linked list (and so it happens, it&aposs the first one in the list too). But we know that, because its priority is 0, it is too low to be added to the file descriptor array to be polled. Let&aposs look at the loop again.

  pollrec = context->poll_records;
  i = 0;
  while (pollrec && i  n_fds)
      while (pollrec && pollrec->fd->fd == fds[i].fd)
          if (pollrec->priority = max_priority)
              pollrec->fd->revents =
                fds[i].revents & (pollrec->fd->events | G_IO_ERR | G_IO_HUP | G_IO_NVAL);
          pollrec = pollrec->next;


The first polling record was skipped during the update of the GPollFD array, so the condition pollrec && pollrec->fd->fd == fds[i].fd is never going to be satisfied, because 19 is not in the array. The innermost while() is not entered, and as such the pollrec list pointer never moves forward to the next record. So no polling record is updated here, even if we have updated revent information from the polling results.

What happens next should be easy to see. The check() method for all polled sources are called with outdated revents. In the case of the source for file descriptor 30, we wrongly tell it there&aposs a G_IO_IN condition, so it asks the main loop to call dispatch it triggering a a wl_connection_read() call in a socket with no incoming data. For the source with file descriptor 34, we tell it that there&aposs no incoming data and its dispatch() method is not invoked, even when on the other side of the socket we have a client waiting for data to come and blocking in the meantime. This explains what we see in the strace output above. If the source with file descriptor 19 continues to be ready and with its priority unchanged, then this situation repeats in every further iteration of the main loop, leading to a hang in the web process that is forever waiting that the UI process reads its socket pipe.

The bug – explained

I have been using GLib for a very long time, and I have only fixed a couple of minor bugs in it over the years. Very few actually, which is why it was very difficult for me to come to accept that I had found a bug in one of the most reliable and complex parts of the library. Impostor syndrome is a thing and it really gets in the way.

But in a nutshell, the bug in the GLib main loop is that the very clever linear update of registers is missing something very important: it should skip to the first polling record matching before attempting to update its revents. Without this, in the presence of a file descriptor source with the lowest file descriptor identifier and also a lower priority than the cutting priority in the current main loop iteration, revents in the polling registers are not updated and therefore the wrong sources can be dispatched. The simplest patch to avoid this, would look as follows.

   i = 0;
   while (pollrec && i  n_fds)
+      while (pollrec && pollrec->fd->fd != fds[i].fd)
+        pollrec = pollrec->next;
       while (pollrec && pollrec->fd->fd == fds[i].fd)
           if (pollrec->priority = max_priority)

Once we find the first matching record, let&aposs update all consecutive records that also match and need an update, then let&aposs skip to the next record, rinse and repeat. With this two-line patch, the web process was finally unlocked, the EGL display initialized properly, the web extension and the web page were loaded, CI tests starting passing again, and this exhausted developer could finally put his mind to rest.

A complete patch, including improvements to the code comments around this fascinating part of GLib and also a minimal test case reproducing the bug have already been reviewed by the GLib maintainers and merged to both stable and development branches. I expect that at least some GLib sources will start being called in a different (but correct) order from now on, so keep an eye on your GLib sources. :-)

Standing on the shoulders of giants

At this point I should acknowledge that without the support from my colleagues in the WebKit team in Igalia, getting to the bottom of this problem would have probably been much harder and perhaps my sanity would have been at stake. I want to thank Adrián and &Zcaronan for their input on Wayland, debugging techniques, and for allowing me to bounce back and forth ideas and findings as I went deeper into this rabbit hole, helping me to step out of dead-ends, reminding me to use tools out of my everyday box, and ultimately, to be brave enough to doubt GLib&aposs correctness, something that much more often than not I take for granted.

Thanks also to Philip and Sebastian for their feedback and prompt code review!

October 29, 2020 01:10 PM

October 22, 2020

Release Notes for Safari Technology Preview 115

Surfin’ Safari

Safari Technology Preview Release 115 is now available for download for macOS Big Sur and macOS Catalina. If you already have Safari Technology Preview installed, you can update in the Software Update pane of System Preferences on macOS.

This release covers WebKit revisions 267325-267959.

Web Inspector

  • Sources Tab
    • Added a checkbox to the popover when configuring a local override to allow it to skip the network (r267723)

Web Audio

  • Enabled the modern unprefixed WebAudio API (r267488, r267504)
  • Changed AnalyserNode to downmix input audio to mono (r267346)
  • Changed AnalyserNode’s getByteFrequencyData() and getFloatFrequencyData() to only do FFT analysis once per render quantum (r267349)
  • Changed AudioBufferSourceNode to update grain parameters when the buffer is set after rendering has started (r267386)
  • Updated AudioParam.setValueCurveAtTime() to have an implicit call to setValueAtTime() at the end (r267435)
  • Updated AudioParams with automations to process timelines (r267432)
  • Fixed BiquadFilterNode’s lowpass and highpass filters (r267444)
  • Fixed Web Audio API outputting silence for 302 redirected resource (r267507, r267532)
  • Made AudioBufferSourceNode loop fixes (r267443)
  • Changed to properly handle AudioParam.setTargetAtTime() followed by a ramp (r267381)
  • Improved AudioBufferSourceNode resampling (r267453)

  • Added stubs for AudioWorklet (r267744)

  • Added basic infrastructure for AudioWorklet (r267859)
  • Added stubs for AudioWorkletProcessor and AudioWorkletGlobalScope (r267891)


  • Fixed BigInt to work with Map and Set (r267373)
  • Enabled Intl.DateTimeFormat dayPeriod (r267454)
  • Updated Intl rounding behavior to align with specifications update (r267500)
  • Updated functions to consistently enumerate length property before name property (r267364)
  • Updated Array.prototype.sort to be consistent with specifications (r267514)
  • Implemented item method proposal, note that this will be renamed to at later (r267814)


  • Performance.navigation and Performance.timing are incorrectly exposed to workers (r267333)
  • Update User Timing interfaces to User Timing Level 3 (r267402)
  • Fixed visibilitychange:hidden event to fire during page navigations (r267614)
  • Re-aligned HTMLElement with the HTML spec (r267893)


  • Added support for HTMLMediaElement.setSinkId (r267472)
  • Fixed webkitfullscreenchange to fire for Shadow DOM elements (r267724)


  • Added support for the individual transform properties translate, rotate, scale, including accelerated animation (r267887, r267937, r267958)
  • Changed to clear the override width to properly compute percent margins in CSS Grid (r267503)

  • Implemented the CSS math-style property (r267578)

  • Implemented row-gap and column-gap for flex layout (r267829)
  • Implemented list-style-type: <string> (r267940)
  • Fixed CSS Selector an-plus-b serialization (r267812)
  • CSS serialization expects comments between certain tokens (r267766)
  • Fixed CSS variable causing a background url() to get resolved with a different base (r267951)
  • Updated to repaint as needed when adding and removing highlights (r267863)


  • Changed to not set the UV option if the authenticator doesn’t support it (r267369)

Selection API

  • Fixed selectAllChildren to return InvalidNodeTypeError when passed a DocumentType node (r267327)
  • Improved VisibleSelection, FrameSelection, and DOMSelection to preserve anchor and focus (r267329)


  • Updated toRTCIceProtocol to handle ssltcp candidates (r267401)


  • Added support for accessing the ‘SameSite’ cookie attribute (r267919)
  • Fixed several issues when switching to new browser context (r267918)

October 22, 2020 09:00 PM

October 19, 2020

Meet Face ID and Touch ID for the Web

Surfin’ Safari

People often see passwords are the original sin of authentication on the web. Passwords can be easy to guess and vulnerable to breaches. Frequent reuse of the same password across the web makes breaches even more profitable. As passwords are made stronger and unique, they can quickly become unusable for many users. Passwords indeed look notorious, but are passwords themselves the problem, or is it their use as a sole factor for authentication?

Many believe the latter, and thus multi-factor authentication has become more and more popular. The introduction of a second factor does fix most of the security issues with passwords, but it inevitably makes the whole authentication experience cumbersome with an additional step. Therefore, multi-factor authentication has not become the de facto authentication mechanism on the web. Face ID and Touch ID for the web provides both the security guarantees of multi-factor authentication and ease of use. It offers multi-factor authentication in a single step. Using this technology, available on over a billion capable Apple devices, web developers can now broadly offer traditional multi-factor authentication with a smooth, convenient experience. And being built on top of the Web Authentication API makes Face ID and Touch ID phishing resistant as well.

This blog post extends the content of WWDC 2020 “Meet Face ID and Touch ID for the web” session by providing detailed examples to assist developers’ adoption of this new technology, including how to manage different user agent user interfaces, how to propagate user gestures from user-activated events to WebAuthn API calls, and how to interpret Apple Anonymous Attestation. This article will end by summarizing the unique characteristics of Apple’s platform authenticator and the current status of security key support. If you haven’t heard about WebAuthn before, you’re strongly encouraged to first watch the WWDC 2020 session, which covers the basic concepts. Otherwise, please enjoy.

Managing User Experiences

Although user agents are not required to offer UI guidance to users during WebAuthn flows, the reality is that all of them do. This allows user agents to share some of the burden from websites to manage the user experience, but it creates another complexity for websites as each user agent has a different way of presenting the WebAuthn ceremony in its UI. A WebAuthn ceremony could either be the authentication process or the registration process. This section presents how WebAuthn ceremony options map to WebKit/Safari’s UI and the recommended user experience for Face ID and Touch ID for the web.

One challenge is to manage different user experiences among the platform authenticator and security keys. Although the WebAuthn API allows presenting both options to the user simultaneously, it’s not the best approach. First, most users are probably only familiar with the branding of the platform authenticator, i.e., Face ID and Touch ID on Apple’s platforms, but are unfamiliar with security keys. Offering both at the same time can confuse users and make it difficult for them to decide what to do. Secondly, the platform authenticator has different behaviors and use cases from security keys. For example, Face ID and Touch ID are suitable for use as a more convenient, alternative mechanism to sign in when most security keys are not. And credentials stored in security keys can often be used across different devices and platforms while those stored in the platform authenticator are typically tied to a platform and a device. Therefore, it is better to present these two options to the user separately.

Presenting Face ID and Touch ID Alone

What follows is the recommended way to invoke Face ID and Touch ID for the web. Below is the corresponding Safari UI for registration ceremonies. Here, the Relying Party ID is picked to be displayed in the dialog.

Here is the corresponding code snippet to show the above dialog.

const options = {
    publicKey: {
        rp: { name: "" },
        user: {
            name: "",
            id: userIdBuffer,
            displayName: "John Appleseed"
        pubKeyCredParams: [ { type: "public-key", alg: -7 } ],
        challenge: challengeBuffer,
        authenticatorSelection: { authenticatorAttachment: "platform" }

const publicKeyCredential = await navigator.credentials.create(options);

The essential option is to specify authenticatorSelection: { authenticatorAttachment: "platform" } , which tells WebKit to only invoke the platform authenticator. After the publicKeyCredential is returned, one of the best practices is to store the Credential ID in a server-set, secure, httpOnly cookie, and mark its transport as "internal". This cookie can then be used to improve the user experience of future authentication ceremonies.

To protect users from tracking, the WebAuthn API doesn’t allow websites to query the existence of credentials on a device. This important privacy feature, however, requires some extra effort for websites to store provisioned Credential IDs in a separate source and query it before the authentication ceremony. The separate source is often on the backend server. This practice works well for security keys given that they can be used across platforms. Unfortunately, it does not work for the platform authenticator as credentials can only be used on the device where they were created. A server-side source cannot tell whether or not a particular platform authenticator indeed preserves a credential. Hence, a cookie is especially useful. This cookie should not be set through the document.cookie API since Safari’s Intelligent Tracking Prevention caps the expiry of such cookies to seven days. It’s also important to mark those credentials as "internal" such that websites could supply it in the authentication ceremony options to prevent WebKit from asking users for security keys at the same time.

Below are two different UIs for authentication ceremonies. The first one is streamlined for the case where the user agent only has a single credential, while the second one shows how the user agent allows the user to select one of many credentials. For both cases, only submitted in the registration ceremony is selected to display. For the second case, the order of the list is sorted according to the last used date of the credential. WebKit keeps track of the last used date. Websites thus do not need to worry about it.

Here is the corresponding code snippet to show the above dialogs.

const options = {
    publicKey: {
        challenge: challengeBuffer,
        allowCredentials: [
            { type: "public-key", id: credentialIdBuffer1, transports: ["internal"] },
            // ... more Credential IDs can be supplied.

const publicKeyCredential = await navigator.credentials.get(options);

To be noted, even though an improvement over WebKit can be made such that transports: ["internal"] is not necessary to prevent WebKit from asking users for security keys as long as all allowed credentials are found within the platform authenticator, it is for the happy path only. In the case where no credentials are found, this extra property can tell WebKit to show an error message instead of asking the user for security keys.

Presenting Face ID and Touch ID along with Security Keys

Despite the fact that the following usage is discouraged, WebKit/Safari has prepared dedicated UI to allow the user to select a security key in addition to the platform authenticator. Below is the one for registration ceremonies.

The above dialog can be obtained by deleting authenticatorSelection: { authenticatorAttachment: "platform" } from the registration ceremony code snippet above.

The above dialog will be shown if any entry in the allowCredentials array from the authentication ceremony code snippet above doesn’t have the transports: ["internal"] property.

To be noted, security keys can be used immediately in both cases after the UI is shown. “Use Security Key” and “Account from Security Key” options are there to show instructions of how to interact with security keys.

Specifying allowCredentials or not

allowCredentials is optional for authentication ceremonies. However, omitting it will result in undetermined behavior in WebKit/Safari’s UI. If credentials are found, the authentication ceremony UI above will be shown. If no credentials are found, WebKit will ask the user for their security keys. Therefore, it is highly recommended not to omit this option.

Propagating User Gestures

Unsolicited permission prompts are annoying. Mozilla has conducted surveys [1, 2] that verify this. Even though WebAuthn prompts are not as often seen on the web as notification prompts today, this situation will change with the release of Face ID and Touch ID for the web.

Websites don’t ask for notification permission for fun. They ask because notifications can bring users back to their sites and increase their daily active users metric. A similar financial incentive could be found with WebAuthn prompts especially when platform authenticators are available as a fulfilled authentication request results in a high fidelity, persistent unique identifier of the user. This is a universal truth about authentication and that is why many sites ask for it before users even interact with the site. Though it is inevitable that WebAuthn credential will be leveraged to serve targeted ads to users, at least a similar protection that Mozilla did in Firefox for notification permission prompts can be utilized to make those WebAuthn prompts less annoying to users, which is to require user gestures for the WebAuthn API to eliminate annoying ‘on load’ prompts.

We foresaw this problem some time ago and filed an issue on the WebAuthn specification, but it didn’t get much traction back then. One reason is that it is a breaking change. Another reason is that the risk is not as high with security keys since they are not that popular and not always attached to the platform. The amount of unsolicited prompts has been surprisingly low. The situation is different with the release of Face ID and Touch ID for the web. So, Face ID and Touch ID for the web require user gestures to function. (User gestures are not required for security keys for backward compatibility.)

A user gesture is an indicator to signal WebKit that the execution of the current JavaScript context is a direct result of a user interaction, or more precisely from a handler for a user activated event, such as a touchend, click, doubleclick, or keydown event [3]. Requiring user gestures for the WebAuthn API means API calls must happen within the above JavaScript context. Normally, the user gesture will not be propagated to any async executors within the context. Since it is popular for websites to fetch a challenge asynchronously from a server right before invoking WebAuthn API, WebKit allows WebAuthn API to accept user gestures propagated through XHR events and the Fetch API. Here are examples of how websites can invoke Face ID and Touch ID for the web from user activated events.

Calling the API Directly from User Activated Events

// Fetching the challengeBuffer before the onclick event.

button.addEventListener("click", async () => {
    const options = {
        publicKey: {
            challenge: challengeBuffer,

    const publicKeyCredential = await navigator.credentials.create(options);

Propagating User Gestures Through XHR Events

button.addEventListener("click", () => {
    const xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
    xhr.onreadystatechange = async function() {
        if (this.readyState == 4 && this.status == 200) {
            const challenge = this.responseText;
            const options = {
                publicKey: {
                    challenge: hexStringToUint8Array(challenge), // a custom helper

            const publicKeyCredential = await navigator.credentials.create(options);
    };"POST", "/WebKit/webauthn/challenge", true);
    xhr.setRequestHeader("Content-type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded");

Propagating User Gestures Through Fetch API

button.addEventListener("click", async () => {
    const response = await fetch("/WebKit/webauthn/challenge", { method: "POST" });
    const challenge = await response.text();

    const options = {
        publicKey: {
            challenge: hexStringToUint8Array(challenge), // a custom helper
    const publicKeyCredential = await navigator.credentials.create(options);

To be noted, readable streams cannot propagate user gestures yet (related bug). Also, the user gesture will expire after 10 seconds for both XHR events and Fetch API.

Easter Egg: Propagating User Gestures Through setTimeout

button.addEventListener("click", () => {
    setTimeout(async () => {
        const options = { ... };
        const publicKeyCredential = await navigator.credentials.create(options);
    }, 500);

The user gesture in the above example will expire after 1 second.

On iOS 14, iPadOS 14 and macOS Big Sur Beta Seed 1, only the very first case is supported. Thanks to early feedback from developers, we were able to identify limitations and add the later cases. This also helped us recognize that user gestures are not a well understood concept among web developers. Therefore, we are going to contribute to the HTML specification and help establish a well established concept of a user gesture for consistency among browser vendors. Depending on how it goes, we might reconsider expanding the user gesture requirement to security keys.

Interpreting Apple Anonymous Attestation

Attestation is an optional feature which provides websites a cryptographic proof of the authenticator’s provenance such that websites that are restricted by special regulations can make a trust decision. Face ID and Touch ID for the web offers Apple Anonymous Attestation. Once verified, this attestation guarantees that an authentic Apple device performed the WebAuthn registration ceremony, but it does not guarantee the operating system running on that device is untampered. If the operating system is untampered, it also guarantees that the private key of the just generated credential is protected by the Secure Enclave and the usage of the private key is guarded with Face ID or Touch ID. (A note: the guard falls back to device passcode if biometric fails multiple times in a row.)

Apple Anonymous Attestation is first of its kind, providing a service like an Anonymization CA, where the authenticator works with a cloud operated CA owned by its manufacturer to dynamically generate per-credential attestation certificates such that no identification information of the authenticator will be revealed to websites in the attestation statement. Furthermore, among data relevant to the registration ceremony, only the public key of the credential along with a hash of the concatenated authenticator data and client data are sent to the CA for attestation, and the CA will not store any of these. This approach makes the whole attestation process privacy preserving. In addition, this approach avoids the security pitfall of Basic Attestation that the compromising of a single device results in revoking certificates from all devices with the same attestation certificate.

Enabling Apple Anonymous Attestation

const options = {
    publicKey: {
        attestation: "direct", // the essential option

const publicKeyCredential = await navigator.credentials.create(options);

Verifying the Statement Format

This is the definition of the Apple Anonymous Attestation statement format. Issue 1453 is tracking the progress of adding this statement format to the WebAuthn standard.

$$attStmtType //= (
                       fmt: "apple",
                       attStmt: appleStmtFormat

appleStmtFormat = {
                       x5c: [ credCert: bytes, * (caCert: bytes) ]

The semantics of the above fields are as follows:
credCert followed by its certificate chain, each encoded in X.509 format.
The credential public key certificate used for attestation, encoded in X.509 format.

Here is the verification procedure given inputs attStmt, authenticatorData and clientDataHash:

  1. Verify that attStmt is valid CBOR conforming to the syntax defined above and perform CBOR decoding on it to extract the contained fields.
  2. Concatenate authenticatorData and clientDataHash to form nonceToHash.
  3. Perform SHA-256 hash of nonceToHash to produce nonce.
  4. Verify nonce matches the value of the extension with OID ( 1.2.840.113635.100.8.2 ) in credCert. The nonce here is used to prove that the attestation is live and to protect the integrity of the authenticatorData and the client data.
  5. Verify credential public key matches the Subject Public Key of credCert.
  6. If successful, return implementation-specific values representing attestation type Anonymous CA and attestation trust path x5c.

The final step is to verify x5c is a valid certificate chain starting from the credCert to the Apple WebAuthn root certificate, which then proves the attestation. (This step is usually shared among different types of attestations that utilize x5c [4].) To be noted, the AAGUID is all zeros even if the attestation is enabled as all Apple devices that support Face ID and Touch ID for the web should have the same properties as explained at the beginning of this section and no other devices can request Apple Anonymous Attestation.

Unique Characteristics of Apple’s Platform Authenticator

Here is a summary about unique characteristics of Apple’s platform authenticator, i.e., Face ID and Touch ID for the web.

  • Different option set results in different UI, and therefore please specify it wisely.
  • Only RP ID and are selected to display in the UI.
  • User gestures are required to invoke the platform authenticator.
  • Apple Anonymous Attestation is available. Use it only if attestation is necessary for you.
  • AAGUID is all zero even if attestation is used.
  • Face ID and Touch ID for the web is available in Safari, SFSafariViewController and ASWebAuthenticationSession on iOS 14, iPadOS 14 and macOS Big Sur. For macOS, Safari 14 with downlevel OS will not get this feature because the attestation relies on a new system framework.
  • All public key credentials generated by the platform authenticator are resident keys regardless of what option is specified.
  • Credentials can only be cleared for all via Safari > History > Clear History… on Mac Safari or Settings > Safari > Clear History and Website Data on iOS & iPadOS.
  • The signature counter is not implemented and therefore it is always zero. Secure Enclave is used to prevent the credential private key from leaking instead of a software safeguard.

Current Status of Security Key Support

Besides the introduction of Face ID and Touch ID for the web, iOS 14, iPadOS 14 and Safari 14 on all supported macOS also have improved security key support including PIN entry and account selection. Here is a list of features that are currently supported. All of them have been supported since iOS 13.3, iPadOS 13.3 and Safari 13 except the two aforementioned.

  • All MUST features in WebAuthn Level 1 and all optional features except CollectedClientData.tokenBinding and most of the extensions. Only the appid extension is supported.
  • All CTAP 2.0 authenticator API except setPin and changePin.
  • USB, Lightning, and NFC transports are supported on capable devices.
  • U2F security keys are supported via CTAP 2.0 but not CTAP 1/U2F JS.
  • Like Face ID and Touch ID for the web, security key support is available in Safari, SFSafariViewController and ASWebAuthenticationSession.


In this blog post, we introduced Face ID and Touch ID for the web. We believe it is a huge leap forward for authentication on the web. It serves as a great alternative way to sign in, especially for traditional multi-factor authentication mechanisms. With the assistance of this technology, we believe multi-factor authentication will replace sole-factor password as the de facto authentication mechanism on the web. Developers, please start testing this feature today and let us know how it works for you by sending feedback on Twitter (@webkit, @alanwaketan, @jonathandavis) or by filing a bug.

October 19, 2020 05:00 PM

October 08, 2020

Release Notes for Safari Technology Preview 114

Surfin’ Safari

Safari Technology Preview Release 114 is now available for download for macOS Big Sur and macOS Catalina. If you already have Safari Technology Preview installed, you can update in the Software Update pane of System Preferences on macOS.

This release covers WebKit revisions 265893-267325.

Web Inspector

  • Elements Tab
    • Changed to grey out properties that aren’t used or don’t apply (r266066)
    • Changed to hide non-inheritable properties when viewing inherited rules (r266069)
    • Changed to not show inline swatches for properties that aren’t used or don’t apply (r266070)
  • Sources Tab
    • Changed to allow event breakpoints to be configured (r266074, r266480)
    • Changed to evaluate breakpoint conditions before incrementing the ignore count (r266138)
    • Changed to allow DOM breakpoints to be configured (r266669)
    • Changed to allow special JavaScript breakpoints to be configured (r266534)
    • Changed to allow URL breakpoints to be configured (r266538)
  • Network Tab
    • Fixed WebSockets to be reported as type websocket (r266441)
    • Fixed issue where response content was not shown for 304 responses from XHR requests (r266568)
  • Timelines Tab
    • Fixed duplicate “Timeline Recording 1” on open (r266477)
    • Fixed re-enabling the JavaScript Allocations timeline to show previously captured heap snapshots in the table (r266463)
    • Fixed the record button disappearing when interface is narrow (r266537)
    • Fixed the Stop Recording button to actually stop the recording (r267038)
  • Audit Tab
    • Allow audits to be created and edited in Edit mode in Web Inspector (r266317)
  • Miscellaneous
    • Fixed issue where the docking buttons wouldn’t work when docked if the window is too small (r267031)


  • Added Intl.DateTimeFormat dateStyle and timeStyle (r266035)
  • Added Intl.Segmenter (r266032)
  • Added a syntax error for async function in a single-statement context (r266340)
  • Added Object.getOwnPropertyNames caching and accelerated Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor (r265934)
  • Aligned legacy Intl constructor behavior to spec (r266655)
  • Applied Intl.DateTimeFormat hour-cycle correctly when timeStyle is used (r267108)
  • Enabled Intl.DisplayNames (r266029)
  • Changed to not allow let [ sequence to appear in an ExpressionStatement context (r266327)
  • Changed to allow new syntax (r266322)
  • Changed to allow new import.meta() syntax (r266318)
  • Changed to use locale-sensitive grouping for grouping options in IntlRelativeTimeFormat (r266341)
  • Implemented Intl.DateTimeFormat dayPeriod (r266323)
  • Implemented Intl Language Tag Parser (r266039)
  • Implemented Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.formatRange (r266033)
  • Implemented unified Intl.NumberFormat (r266031)
  • Fixed an invalid early error for object literal method named proto (r266117)
  • Fixed implementation of the class “extends” clause incorrectly using proto for setting prototypes (r266106)
  • Fixed Performance and PerformanceNavigation interfaces missing toJSON operations (r267316)
  • Updated Intl.Collator to take a collation option (r267102)
  • Updated Array.prototype.push to always perform Set in strict mode (r266581, r266641)
  • Updated Promise.prototype.finally to perform PromiseResolve (r266896)

Date and Time Inputs

  • Added editing to <input type="datetime-local"> (r266830)
  • Updated date inputs to contain editable components (r266351)
  • Updated date picker appearance to match system date pickers (r267085)
  • Updated date picker when the inner control is edited (r266461)
  • Updated date pickers to respect the document’s color scheme (r267131)
  • Updated date/time inputs to focus the next editable component when entering a separator key (r267281)
  • Updated date/time inputs to preserve focus on value change (r266739)
  • Updated date/time inputs to not use user-specified formats to prevent fingerprinting (r267283)

Web Audio

  • Added AudioParam.automationRate attribute (r265980)
  • Added proper support for AudioContextOptions.sampleRate (r267014)
  • Allowed direct creation of replacement codec (r266466)
  • Changed AudioParam.value setter to call setValueAtTime(value, now) (r266293)
  • Changed AudioParam.linearRampToValueAtTime() formula to match specification (r266261)
  • Changed AudioBufferSourceNode to use final values for playbackRate and detune (r265981)
  • Fixed AnalyserNode.getFloatFrequencyData() to fill array with -Infinity when input is silent (r267202)
  • Fixed AudioBufferSourceNode.start() behavior when the offset is past the end of the buffer (r267169)
  • Fixed AudioBufferSourceNode.start() ignoring when parameter when the pitch rate is 0 (r267170)
  • Fixed AudioContext not rendering until an AudioNode is constructed (r266922)
  • Fixed AudioDestinationNode.maxChannelCount always returning 0 (r266559)
  • Fixed AudioParam.linearRampToValueAtTime() and exponentialRampToValueAtTime() having no effect when there is no preceding event (r266788)
  • Fixed BiquadFilterNode.getFrequencyResponse() to return NaN for out-of-bounds frequencies (r266541)
  • Fixed the types of Panner.setPosition() and setOrientation() parameters to not be unrestricted float (r267071)
  • Dropped non-standard AudioBuffer.gain (r267065)
  • Made AudioParam.cancelScheduledValues() standards compliant (r266558)
  • Improved interpolation algorithm in OscillatorNode (r266627)
  • Introduced StereoPannerNode Interface (r265962)
  • Stopped performing “de-zippering” when applying gain (r266794)


  • Enabled MediaRecorder by default on macOS (r267225)
  • End of media capture should not be reported before 3 seconds of the start of capture (r267081)
  • MediaRecorder timeslice parameter causing internal error on longer videos (r266611)

Paint Timing

  • Enabled paint timing by default (r267235)


  • Enabled WebGL2 by default (r267027)
  • Added WebGL and WebGL2 context support to OffscreenCanvas (r266275)
  • WebGL goes in a bad state where glContext.createProgram() returns null (r266362)


  • Fixed text-transform inheritance to ::marker (r266288)
  • Changed to set available column space before grid items prelayout (r266173)
  • Added support for flow-relative shorthand and offset properties (r266674)
  • Changed to allow indefinite size flex items to be definite with respect to resolving percentages inside them (r266696)
  • Changed to not skip flexboxes with auto height for percentage computations in quirks mode (r266716)
  • Changed to use min-content size for intrinsic maximums resolution (r266675)
  • Fixed min-height: auto not getting applied to nested flexboxes (r266695)
  • Fixed :visited color taken on a non-visited link when using CSS variables (r266656)
  • Fixed CSS revert to serialize as “revert”, not “Revert” (r266660)
  • Updated to safely handle overly-long CSS variable values (r266989)


  • Aligned length properties of function prototypes with specificcations (r266018)
  • Updated ReadableStream.pipeTo implementation to match specifications (r266129)
  • Updated Web Share API to prevent non-HTTP(S) URLs (r266151)
  • Aligned ISO-8859-{3,6,7,8,8-I} and windows-{874,1253,1255,1257} encodings with specifications (r266527)
  • Changed XML documents in iframes to not inherit encoding from the parent frame (r266671)
  • Changed Element to not set an attribute inside its constructor (r267074)
  • Changed new URL("#") to throw an error (r266748)
  • Fixed consecutive requestAnimationFrame callbacks that may get passed the same timestamp (r266526)
  • Fixed XHR.timeout getting affected by long tasks (r267227)
  • Fixed taking too long to fetch images from memory cache (r266699)
  • Implemented encodeInto() TextEncoder method (r266533)
  • Updated the URL fragment percent encode set (r266399)

Lazy Loading


  • Fixed the PiP window getting closed when the video element is removed from the DOM (r265904)
  • Fixed an HDCP error for all streams on Netflix (r266176)
  • Fixed <video> element preventing screen from sleeping even after playback finishes (r266410)


  • Added RTCRtpSynchronizationSource.rtpTimestamp (r266052)
  • Exposed RTCPeerConnection.restartIce (r266511)
  • Safari is not able to hear audio when using WebRTC in multiple tabs (r266454)


  • Fixed animations invalidating too often (r266229)
  • Fixed flickering on (r266189)
  • Fixed the cut off scrollbar on Facebook posts with lots of comments has cut off scrollbar that couldn’t scroll to the bottom (r266156)
  • Changed to handle fonts that lie about being monospaced (r266118)
  • Fixed programmatic selection of text in a text field that causes the highlight overlay to spill out (r266051)
  • Fixed overflow: scroll rubber-banding getting interrupted by post-layout scrolling (r267002, r266337)
  • Fixed a flash when closing a webpage (r267250)

Text Rendering

  • Changed letter-spacing to disable ligatures (r266683)


  • Fixed vertical scrolling getting stuck when a horizontal scroller is under the mouse (r266292)
  • Fixed select element scrolling after scrolling the page (r266262)

Back-Forward Cache

  • Added support for third-party domains to get stored for back-forward navigations (r265916)

Storage Access API

  • Allowed requests for storage access from nested iframes (r266479)

October 08, 2020 05:40 PM

October 01, 2020

Sergio Villar: Closing the gap (in flexbox 😇)

Igalia WebKit

Flexbox had a lot of early problems, but by mid-May 2020 where our story begins, both Firefox and Chromium had done a lot of work on improving things with this feature. WebKit, however, hadn’t caught up. Prioritizing the incredible amounts of work a web engine requires is difficult. The WebKit implementation was still passable for very many (most) cases of the core features, and it didn’t have problems that caused crashes or something that urgently demanded attention, so engineers dedicated their limited time toward other things. The net result, however, was that as this choice repeated many times, the comparative state of WebKit’s flexbox implementation had fallen behind pretty significantly.
Web Platform Tests (WPT) is a huge ongoing effort from many people to come up with a very extensive list of tests that could help both spec editors and implementors to make sure we have great compatibility. In the case of flexbox, for example, there are currently 773 tests (2926 subtests) and WebKit was failing a good amount of them. This matters a lot because there are things that flexbox is ideal for, and it is exceptionally widely used. In mid-May, Igalia was contracted to improve things here, and in this post, I’ll explain and illustrate how we did that.

The Challenge

The main issues were (in no particular order):
  • min-width:auto and min-height:auto handling
  • Nested flexboxes in column flows
  • Flexboxes inside tables and viceversa
  • Percentages in heights with indefinite sizes
  • WebKit CI not runnning many WPT flexbox tests
  • and of course… lack of gap support in Flexbox
Modifying Flexbox layout code is a challenge by itself. Tiny modifications in the source code could cause huge differences in the final layout. You might even have a patch that passes all the tests and regresses multiple popular web sites.
Good news is that we were able to tackle most of those issues. Let’s review what changes you could eventually expect from future releases of Safari (note that Apple doesn’t disclose information about future products and/or releases) and the other WebKit based browsers (like GNOME Web).

Flexbox gaps 🥳🎉

Probably one of the most awaited features in WebKit by web developers. It’s finally here after Firefox and Chrome landed it not so long ago. The implementation was initially inspired by the one in Chrome but then it diverged a bit in the final version of the patch. The important thing is that the behaviour should be the same, at least all the tests in WPT related to gaps are passing now in WebKit trunk.

<div style="display: flex; flex-wrap: wrap; gap: 1ch">
  <div style="background: magenta; color: white">Lorem</div>
  <div style="background: green; color: white">ipsum</div>
  <div style="background: orange; color: white">dolor</div>
  <div style="background: blue; color: white">sit</div>
  <div style="background: brown; color: white">amet</div>

Tables as flex items

Tables should obey the flex container sizing whenever they are flex items. As it can be seen in the examples bellow, the tables’ layout code was kicking in and ignoring the constraints set by the flex container. Tables should do what the flex algorithm mandates and thus they should allow being stretched/squeezed as required.

<div style="display:flex; width:100px; background:red;">
  <div style="display:table; width:10px; max-width:10px; height:100px; background:green;">
    <div style="width:100px; height:10px; background:green;"></div>

Tables with items exceeding the 100% of available size

This is the case of tables placed inside flex items. The automatic layout table algorithm was generating tables with unlimited widths when the sum of the sizes of their columns (expressed in percentages) was exceeding the 100%. It was impossible to fulfill at the same time the constraints set by tables and flexbox algorithms.

<div style="display:flex; width:100px; height:100px; align-items:flex-start; background:green;">
  <div style="flex-grow:1; flex-shrink:0;">
    <table style="height:50px; background:green;" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0">
        <td style="width:100%; background:green;"> </td>
        <td style="background:green;"> </td>

Note how the table was growing indefinitely (I cropped the “Before” picture to fit in the post) to the right before the fix.

Alignment in single-line flexboxes

Interesting case. The code was considering that single-line flexboxes were those where all the flex items were placed in a single line after computing the required space for them. Though sensible, that’s not what a single line flexbox is, it’s a flex container with flex-wrap:nowrap. This means that a flex container with flex-wrap:wrap whose children do not need more than 1 flex line to be placed is not a single-line flex container from the specs POV (corolary: implementing specs is hard).

<div style="display: flex; flex-wrap: wrap; align-content: flex-end; width: 425px; height: 70px; border: 2px solid black">
  <div style="height: 20px">This text should be at the bottom of its container</div>

Percentages in flex items with indefinite sizes

One of the trickiest ones. Although it didn’t involve a lot of code it caused two serious regressions in Youtube’s upload form and when viewing Twitter videos in fullscreen which required some previous fixes and delayed a bit the landing of this patch. Note that this behaviour was really conflictive from the pure specification POV as there were many changes over the time. Defining a good behaviour is really complicated. Without entering in too much details, flexbox has a couple of cases were sizes are considered as definite when they are theoretically indefinite. In this case we consider that if the flex container main size is definite then the post-flexing size of flex items is also treated as definite.

<div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; height: 150px; width: 150px; border: 2px solid black;">
    <div style="height: 50%; overflow: hidden;">
      <div style="width: 50px; height: 50px; background: green;"></div>
  <div style="flex: none; width: 50px; height: 50px; background: green;"></div>

Hit testing with overlapping flex items

There were some issues with pointer events passing through overlapping flex items (due to negative margins for example). This was fixed by letting the hit testing code proceed in reverse (the opposite to painting) order-modified document order instead of using the raw order from the DOM.

<div style="display:flex; border: 1px solid black; width: 300px;">
  <a style="width: 200px;" href="#">Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua</a>
  <div style="margin-left: -200px; width: 130px; height: 50px; background: orange;"></div>

In the “Before” case hit testing was bypassing the orange block and thus, the cursor was showing a hand because it detected that it was hovering a link. After the fix, the cursor is properly rendered as an arrow because the orange block covers the underneath link.

Computing percentages with scrollbars

In this case the issue was that, in order to compute percentages in heights, we were incorrectly using the size of the scrollbars too.

<div style="display: inline-flex; height: 10em;">
  <div style="overflow-x: scroll;">
    <div style="width: 200px; height: 100%; background: green"></div>

Note that in the “After” picture the horizontal scrollbar background is visible while in the “Before” the wrong height computation made the flex item overlap the scrollbar.

Image items with specific sizes

The flex layout algorithm needs the intrinsic sizes of the flex items to compute their sizes and the size of the flex container. Changes to those intrinsic sizes should trigger new layouts, and the code was not doing that.

<!-- Just to showcase how the img bellow is not properly sized -->
<div style="position: absolute; background-color: red; width: 50px; height: 50px; z-index: -1;"></div>
<div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; width: 100px; height: 5px;">
  <img style="width: 100px; height: 100px;" src="">

Nested flexboxes with ‘min-height: auto’

Another tricky one and another one related to the handling of nested column flexboxes. As in the previous issue with nested column flexboxes the problem was that we were not supporting this case. For those wanting to have a deeper understanding of the issue this bug was about implementing section 4.5 of the specs. This was one of the more complicated ones to fix, Edward Lorenz would love that part of the layout code, the slightest change in one of those source code lines could trigger huge changes in the final rendering.

<div style='display:flex; flex-direction: column; overflow-y: scroll; width: 250px; height: 250px; border: 1px solid black'>
  <div style='display:flex;'>
    <div style="width: 100px; background: blue"></div>
    <div style='width: 120px; background: orange'></div>
    <div style='width: 10px; background: yellow; height: 300px'></div>

As it can be seen, in the “Before” picture the blue and orange blocks are sized differently to the yellow one. That’s fixed in the “After” picture.

Percentages in quirks mode

Another one affecting how percentages are computed in heights, but this one specific to quirks mode. We’re matching now Firefox, Chrome and pre-Chromium Edge, i.e., flexbox should not care much about quirks mode since it was invented many years after quirky browsers dominated the earth.

<div style="width: 100px; height: 50px;">
  <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; outline: 2px solid blue;">
    <div style="flex: 0 0 50%"></div>

Percentages in ‘flex-basis’

Percentages were working generally fine inside flex-basis, however there was one particular problematic case. It arose whenever that percentage was refererring to, oh surprise, and indefinite height. And again, we’re talking about nested flexboxes with column flows. Indeed, definite/indefinite sizes is one of the toughest things to get right from the layout POV. In this particular case, the fix was to ignore the percentages and and treat them as height: auto.

<div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; width: 200px;">
  <div style="flex-basis: 0%; height: 100px; background: red;">
    <div style="background: lime">Here's some text.</div>

Flex containers inside STF tables

Fixing a couple of test cases submitted by an anonymous Opera employee 8! years ago. This is another case of competing layout contexts trying to do things their own way.

<div style="display: table; background:red">
   <div style="display: flex; width: 0px">
      <p style="margin: 1em 1em;width: 50px">Text</p>
      <p style="margin: 1em 1em;width: 50px">Text</p>
      <p style="margin: 1em 1em;width: 50px">Text</p>

After the fix the table is properly sized to 0px width and thus no red is seen.


These examples are just some interesting ones I’ve chosen to highlight. In the end, almost 50 new flexbox tests are passing in WebKit that weren’t back in May!. I wouldn’t like to forget the great job done by my colleague Carlos Lopez who imported tons of WPT flexbox tests into the WebKit source tree. He also performed awesome triage work which made my life a lot easier.
Investing in interoperability is a huge deal for the web. It’s good for everyone, from spec authors to final users, including browser vendors, downstream ports or web authors. So if you care about the web, or your business orbits around web technologies, you should definitely promote and invest on interoperability.

Implementing standards or fixing bugs in web engines is the kind of work we happily do at Igalia on a daily basis. We are the second largest contributor to both WebKit and Chrome/Blink, so if you have an annoying bug on a particular web engine (Gecko and Servo as well) that you want to be fixed, don’t hesitate and contact us, we’d be glad to help. Also, should you want to be part of a workers-owned cooperative with an asambleary decision-making mechanism and a strong focus on free software technologies join us!.


Many thanks to WebKit reviewers from Apple and Igalia like Darin Adler, Manuel Rego, Javier Fernández or Daniel Bates who made the process really easy for me, always providing very nice feedback for the patches I submitted.
I’m also really thankful to Googlers like Christian Biesinger, David Grogan and Stephen McGruer who worked on the very same things in Blink and/or provided very nice guidance and support when porting patches.

By svillar at October 01, 2020 11:34 AM

September 28, 2020

Adrián Pérez de Castro: Sunsetting NPAPI support in WebKitGTK (and WPE)

Igalia WebKit

  1. Summary
  2. What is NPAPI?
  3. What is NPAPI used for?
  4. Why are NPAPI plug-ins being phased out?
  5. What are other browsers doing?
  6. Is WebKitGTK following suit?


Here’s a tl;dr list of bullet points:

  • NPAPI is an old mechanism to extend the functionality of a web browser. It is time to let it go.
  • One year ago, WebKitGTK 2.26.0 removed support for NPAPI plug-ins which used GTK2, but the rest of plug-ins kept working.
  • WebKitGTK 2.30.x will be the last stable series with support for NPAPI plug-ins at all. Version 2.30.0 was released a couple of weeks ago.
  • WebKitGTK 2.32.0, due in March 2021, will be the first stable release to ship without support for NPAPI plug-ins.
  • We have already removed the relevant code from the WebKit repository.
  • While the WPE WebKit port allowed running windowless NPAPI plug-ins, this was never advertised nor supported by us.

What is NPAPI?

In 1995, Netscape Navigator 2.0 introduced a mechanism to extend the functionality of the web browser. That was NPAPI, short for Netscape Plugin Application Programming Interface. NPAPI allowed third parties to add support for new content types; for example Future Splash (.spl files), which later became Flash (.swf).

When a NPAPI plug-in is used to render content, the web browser carves a hole in the rectangular location where content handled by the plug-in will be placed, and hands off the rendering responsibility to the plug-in. This would end up calling call for trouble, as we will see later.

What is NPAPI used for?

A number of technologies have used NPAPI along the years for different purposes:

  • Displaying of multimedia content using Flash Player or the Silverlight plug-ins.
  • Running rich Java™ applications in the browser.
  • Displaying documents in non-Web formats (PDF, DjVu) inside browser windows.
  • A number of questionable practices, like VPN client software using a browser plug‑in for configuration.

Why are NPAPI plug-ins being phased out?

The design of NPAPI makes the web browser give full responsibility to plug-ins: the browser has no control whatsoever over what plug-ins do to display content, which makes it hard to make them participate in styling and layout. More importantly, plug-ins are compiled, native code over which browser developers cannot exercise quality control, which resulted in a history of security incidents, crashes, and browser hangs.

Today, Web browsers’ rendering engines can do a better job than plug-ins, more securely and efficiently. The Web platform is mature and there is no place to blindly trust third party code to behave well. NPAPI is a 25 years old technology showing its age—it has served its purpose, but it is no longer needed.

The last nail in the coffin was Adobe’s 2017 announcement that the Flash plugin will be discontinued in January 2021.

What are other browsers doing?

Glad that you asked! It turns out that all major browsers have plans for incrementally reducing how much of NPAPI usage they allow, until they eventually remove it.


Let’s take a look at the Firefox roadmap first:

Version Date Plug-in support changes
47 June 2016 All plug-ins except Flash need the user to click on the element to activate them.
52 March 2017 Only loads the Flash plug‑in by default.
55 August 2017 Does not load the Flash plug‑in by default, instead it asks users to choose whether sites may use it.
56 September 2017 On top of asking the user, Flash content can only be loaded from http:// and https:// URIs; the Android version completely removes plug‑in support. There is still an option to allow always running the Flash plug-in without asking.
69 September 2019 The option to allow running the Flash plug-in without asking the user is gone.
85 January 2021 Support for plug-ins is gone.
Table: Firefox NPAPI plug-in roadmap.

In conclusion, the Mozilla folks have been slowly boiling the frog for the last four years and will completely remove the support for NPAPI plug-ins coinciding with the Flash player reaching EOL status.

Chromium / Chrome

Here’s a timeline of the Chromium roadmap, merged with some highlights from their Flash Roadmap:

Version Date Plug-in support changes
? Mid 2014 The interface to unblock running plug-ins is made more complicated, to discourage usage.
? January 2015 Plug-ins blocked by default, some popular ones allowed.
42 April 2015 Support for plug-ins disabled by default, setting available in chrome://flags.
45 September 2015 Support for NPAPI plug-ins is removed.
55 December 2016 Browser does not advertise Flash support to web content, the user is asked whether to run the plug-in for sites that really need it.
76 July 2019 Flash support is disabled by default, can still be enabled with a setting.
88 January 2021 Flash support is removed.
Table: Chromium NPAPI/Flash plug-in roadmap.

Note that Chromium continued supporting Flash content even when it already removed support for NPAPI in 2015: by means of their acute NIH syndrome, Google came up with PPAPI, which replaced NPAPI and which was basically designed to support Flash and is currently used by Chromium’s built-in PDF viewer—which will go away also coinciding with Flash being EOL, nevertheless.


On the Apple camp, the story is much easier to tell:

  • Their handheld devices—iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch—never supported NPAPI plug-ins to begin with. Easy-peasy.
  • On desktop, Safari has required explicit approval from the user to allow running plug-ins since June 2016. The Flash plug-in has not been preinstalled in Mac OS since 2010, requiring users to manually install it.
  • NPAPI plug-in support will be removed from WebKit by the end of 2020.

Is WebKitGTK following suit?

Yes. In September 2019 WebKitGTK 2.26 removed support for NPAPI plug-ins which use GTK2. This included Flash, but the PPAPI version could still be used via freshplayerplugin.

In March 2021, when the next stable release series is due, WebKitGTK 2.32 will remove the support for NPAPI plug-ins. This series will receive updates until September 2021.

The above gives a full two years since we started restricting which plug-ins can be loaded before they stop working, which we reckon should be enough. At the moment of writing this article, the support for plug-ins was already gone from the WebKit source the GTK and WPE ports.

Yes, you read well, WPE supported NPAPI plug-ins, but in a limited fashion: only windowless plug-ins worked. In practice, making NPAPI plug-ins work on Unix-like systems required using the XEmbed protocol to allow them to place their rendered content overlaid on top of WebKit’s, but the WPE port does not use X11. Provided that we never advertised nor officially supported the NPAPI support in the WPE port, we do not expect any trouble removing it.

September 28, 2020 09:50 PM

September 09, 2020

Release Notes for Safari Technology Preview 113

Surfin’ Safari

Safari Technology Preview Release 113 is now available for download for macOS Big Sur and macOS Catalina. If you already have Safari Technology Preview installed, you can update in the Software Update pane of System Preferences on macOS.

This release covers WebKit revisions 265179-265893.

Web Inspector

  • Timelines Tab
    • Fixed background colors for odd and even items in Dark Mode in the Timelines tab (r265498)
    • Media & Animations timeline shouldn’t shift when sorting (r265356)
  • Adapted Web Inspector’s user interface and styling to better match macOS Big Sur (r265237, r265507)

Web Audio

  • Added constructor for GainNode (r265227)
  • Added constructor for BiquadFilterNode (r265290)
  • Added constructor for ConvolverNode (r265298)
  • Added constructor for DelayNode (r265221)
  • Added constructor for AudioBuffer (r265210)
  • Added constructor for AnalyserNode (r265196)
  • Added support for suspending and resuming an OfflineAudioContext (r265701)
  • Added constructor for the MediaElementAudioSourceNode interface (r265330)
  • Aligned AudioListener with the W3C specification (r265266)
  • Aligned BiquadFilterNode.getFrequencyResponse() with the specification (r265291)
  • Fixed BiquadFilterNode’s lowpass filter (r265517)
  • Fixed missing length attribute on OfflineAudioContext (r265388)
  • Fixed missing baseLatency attribute on the AudioContext interface (r265393)


  • Added support for MediaRecorder bitrate options (r265328)


  • Updated to avoid triggering redundant compositing updates when trying to run a steps() animation on transform (r265358)
  • Fixed inconsistent spacing of Chinese characters in Safari for macOS Big Sur (r265488)


  • Enabled H.264 low latency code path by default for macOS (r265547)
  • Fixed the picture-in-picture button disappearing in the fullscreen YouTube player after starting a new video in a playlist (r265690)


  • Changed to apply aspect ratios when computing flex-basis (r265855)
  • Fixed updating min-height: auto after an image loads when the image has a specified height and width (r265858)
  • Fixed @font-face font-weight descriptor to reject bolder and lighter (r265677)
  • Fixed the CSS specificity of :host() pseudo-classes (r265812)


  • Fixed window.print to not invoke native UI (r265207)


  • Added VoiceOver access to font styling at insertion point (r265259)


  • Fixed font loads quickly followed by navigations failing indefinitely (r265603)


  • Implemented Canvas.transferControlToOffscreen and OffscreenCanvasRenderingContext2D.commit (r265543)
  • Implemented createImageBitmap(ImageData) (r265360)
  • Implemented PerfomanceObserverInit.buffered (r265390)
  • Fixed text input autocorrect="off" attribute getting ignored on macOS (r265509)

Gamepad API

  • Added a special HID mapping for the Google Stadia controller (r265180)
  • Added HID mapping for the Logitech F310/F710 controllers. (r265183)


  • Fixed table data incorrectly translated in some articles on (r265188)
  • Fixed leading and trailing spaces to be ignored when comparing content (r265361)

September 09, 2020 05:32 PM

September 07, 2020

Víctor Jáquez: Review of Igalia Multimedia activities (2020/H1)

Igalia WebKit

This blog post is a review of the various activities the Igalia Multimedia team was involved in during the first half of 2020.

Our previous reports are:

Just before a new virus turned into pandemics we could enjoy our traditional FOSDEM. There, our colleague Phil gave a talk about many of the topics covered in this report.


GstWPE’s wpesrc element, produces a video texture representing a web page rendered off-screen by WPE.

We have worked on a new iteration of the GstWPE demo, focusing on one-to-many, web-augmented overlays, broadcasting with WebRTC and Janus.

Also, since the merge of gstwpe plugin in gst-plugins-bad (staging area for new elements) new users have come along spotting rough areas and improving the element along the way.

Video Editing

GStreamer Editing Services (GES) is a library that simplifies the creation of multimedia editing applications. It is based on the GStreamer multimedia framework and is heavily used by Pitivi video editor.

Implemented frame accuracy in the GStreamer Editing Services (GES)

As required by the industry, it is now possible to reference all time in frame number, providing a precise mapping between frame number and play time. Many issues were fixed in GStreamer to reach the precision enough for make this work. Also intensive regression tests were added.

Implemented time effects support in GES

Important refactoring inside GStreamer Editing Services have happened to allow cleanly and safely change playback speed of individual clips.

Implemented reverse playback in GES

Several issues have been fixed inside GStreamer core elements and base classes in order to support reverse playback. This allows us to implement reliable and frame accurate reverse playback for individual clips.

Implemented ImageSequence support in GStreamer and GES

Since OpenTimelineIO implemented ImageSequence support, many users in the community had said it was really required. We reviewed and finished up imagesequencesrc element, which had been awaiting review for years.

This feature is now also supported in the OpentimelineIO GES adapater.

Optimized nested timelines preroll time by an order of magnitude

Caps negotiation, done while the pipeline transitions from pause state to playing state, testing the whole pipeline functionality, was the bottleneck for nested timelines, so pipelines were reworked to avoid useless negotiations. At the same time, other members of GStreamer community have improved caps negotiation performance in general.

Last but not least, our colleague Thibault gave a talk in The Pipeline Conference about The Motion Picture Industry and Open Source Software: GStreamer as an Alternative, explaining how and why GStreamer could be leveraged in the motion picture industry to allow faster innovation, and solve issues by reusing all the multi-platform infrastructure the community has to offer.

WebKit multimedia

There has been a lot of work on WebKit multimedia, particularly for WebKitGTK and WPE ports which use GStreamer framework as backend.

WebKit Flatpak SDK

But first of all we would like to draw readers attention to the new WebKit Flatpak SDK. It was not a contribution only from the multimedia team, but rather a joint effort among different teams in Igalia.

Before WebKit Flatpak SDK, JHBuild was used for setting up a WebKitGTK/WPE environment for testing and development. Its purpose to is to provide a common set of well defined dependencies instead of relying on the ones available in the different Linux distributions, which might bring different outputs. Nonetheless, Flatpak offers a much more coherent environment for testing and develop, isolated from the rest of the building host, approaching to reproducible outputs.

Another great advantage of WebKit Flatpak SDK, at least for the multimedia team, is the possibility of use gst-build to setup a custom GStreamer environment, with latest master, for example.

Now, for sake of brevity, let us sketch an non-complete list of activities and achievements related with WebKit multimedia.

General multimedia

Media Source Extensions (MSE)

Encrypted Media Extension (EME)

One of the major results of this first half, is the upstream of ThunderCDM, which is an implementation of a Content Decryption Module, providing Widevine decryption support. Recently, our colleague Xabier, published a blog post on this regard.

And it has enabled client-side video rendering support, which ensures video frames remain protected in GPU memory so they can’t be reached by third-party. This is a requirement for DRM/EME.



Though we normally contribute in GStreamer with the activities listed above, there are other tasks not related with WebKit. Among these we can enumerate the following:

GStreamer VAAPI

  • Reviewed a lot of patches.
  • Support for media-driver (iHD), the new VAAPI driver for Intel, mostly for Gen9 onwards. There are a lot of features with this driver.
  • A new vaapioverlay element.
  • Deep code cleanups. Among these we would like to mention:
    • Added quirk mechanism for different backends.
    • Change base classes to GstObject and GstMiniObject of most of classes and buffers types.
  • Enhanced caps negotiation given current driver’s constraints


The multimedia team in Igalia has keep working, along the first half of this strange year, in our three main areas: browsers (mainly on WebKitGTK and WPE), video editing and GStreamer framework.

We worked adding and enhancing WebKitGTK and WPE multimedia features in order to offer a solid platform for media providers.

We have enhanced the Video Editing support in GStreamer.

And, along these tasks, we have contribuited as much in GStreamer framework, particulary in hardware accelerated decoding and encoding and VA-API.

By vjaquez at September 07, 2020 03:12 PM